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The SOAS School of African History  

Shobana Shankar

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Founded in 1916, the School of African Studies at the University of London provided training in African, Asian, and Middle Eastern languages and history to colonial officers. Over more ... More

Socialist Politics in Lusophone Africa  

Michael G. Panzer

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
From the 1950s through the 1970s, several liberation movements emerged in Lusophone Africa (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, and the Cape Verde Islands) that ... More

The Soninke in Ancient West African History  

Kassim Kone

The Soninke are an ancient West African ethnicity that probably gave rise to the much larger group that is called the Mande of which the Soninke are part. The Soninke language belongs to ... More

South African Historical Writing to the End of the Apartheid Era  

Chris Saunders

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
While many of those who have written about South Africa have included reference to past events, it was only from the early 19th century that attempts were made to present a coherent ... More

South Africa’s African National Congress in Exile  

Colin Bundy

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The African National Congress (ANC) operated in exile for just over three decades, from 1960 to mid-1990. It developed from a flimsy and inexperienced “external mission” to an exiled ... More

Southern Africa before Colonial Times  

John Wright

Perspectives on southern Africa’s past in the eras before the establishment of European colonial rule have been heavily shaped by political conflicts rooted in South Africa’s history as a ... More

Southern Zambezia States and Indian Ocean Trade, 1450–1900  

Malyn Newitt

States that flourished in the area immediately south of the Zambesi River from the 15th to the 19th centuries were ruled by Karanga dynasties and were the cultural heirs of Great Zimbabwe. ... More

Sport History and Historiography  

Michelle Sikes

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Imperial expansion cast European sport, embedded with moral codes and social divisions, across Africa. The government, the church, schools, and the army encouraged colonized peoples to ... More

Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement  

Leslie Anne Hadfield

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The Black Consciousness movement of South Africa instigated a social, cultural, and political awakening in the country in the 1970s. By the mid-1960s, major anti-apartheid organizations in ... More

The Stone Age Archaeology of West Africa  

Eleanor Scerri

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
In the early 21st century, understanding West Africa’s Stone Age past has increasingly transcended its colonial legacy to become central to research on human origins. Part of this process ... More

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes  

Justin Pargeter

From at least 3.4 million years ago to historic periods, humans and their ancestors used stone as the raw material for tool production. Archeologists find stone tools on all the planet’s ... More

The Swahili in the African and Indian Ocean Worlds to c. 1500  

Abdul Sheriff

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
The East African coast is an interface between the continental world of Africa and the maritime world of the Indian Ocean, and the monsoons provided a convenient wind system to link them. ... More

Swazi Women’s Resilience regarding Patriarchy, Marginalization, and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic  

Betty Harris

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Technological Change in Late 19th-Century South Africa  

William Storey

Societies and technologies were deeply intertwined in the history of late 19th-century South Africa. The late 19th century saw the significant development of capitalist agriculture, ... More

The Archaeology of Political Complexity in West Africa Through 1450 CE  

Stephen Dueppen

Political complexity in archaeological research has traditionally been defined as socio-political differentiation (roles, statuses, offices) integrated through centralized systems of power ... More

The Dar es Salaam School of African History  

Gregory H. Maddox

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The Dar es Salaam School of African History refers to the work of a group of historians based at what became the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Led initially by Terrance O. ... More

The History of Migrant Labor in South Africa (1800–2014)  

Peter Delius

Online publication date:
May 2017
A pervasive system of migrant labor played a fundamental part in shaping the past and present of South Africa’s economy and society and has left indelible marks on the wider region. South ... More

The Internet and Social Media as Sources  

Aubrey Bloomfield and Sean Jacobs

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The Internet and social media increasingly are becoming sources about the African past and present in ways that will influence to some extent how history will be learnt and the form that ... More

The Nile Waters Issue  

Terje Tvedt

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
To understand the role of the modern Nile in African history, it is first necessary to have familiarity with the premodern “natural” Nile, including both its hydrology and societal ... More

The Wisconsin School of African History  

Joseph C. Miller

The University of Wisconsin-Madison has been a prominent producer of doctorates in African history since 1963. As of 2017 the institution had granted more than 110 degrees. Philip D. ... More

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