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Sport History and Historiography  

Michelle Sikes

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Imperial expansion cast European sport, embedded with moral codes and social divisions, across Africa. The government, the church, schools, and the army encouraged colonized peoples to ... More

Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement  

Leslie Anne Hadfield

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The Black Consciousness movement of South Africa instigated a social, cultural, and political awakening in the country in the 1970s. By the mid-1960s, major anti-apartheid organizations in ... More

The Stone Age Archaeology of West Africa  

Eleanor Scerri

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
In the early 21st century, understanding West Africa’s Stone Age past has increasingly transcended its colonial legacy to become central to research on human origins. Part of this process ... More

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes  

Justin Pargeter

From at least 3.4 million years ago to historic periods, humans and their ancestors used stone as the raw material for tool production. Archeologists find stone tools on all the planet’s ... More

The Swahili in the African and Indian Ocean Worlds to c. 1500  

Abdul Sheriff

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
The East African coast is an interface between the continental world of Africa and the maritime world of the Indian Ocean, and the monsoons provided a convenient wind system to link them. ... More

Swazi Women’s Resilience regarding Patriarchy, Marginalization, and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic  

Betty Harris

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Technological Change in Late 19th-Century South Africa  

William Storey

Societies and technologies were deeply intertwined in the history of late 19th-century South Africa. The late 19th century saw the significant development of capitalist agriculture, ... More

Technological Origins: Primate Perspectives and Early Hominin Tool Use in Africa  

Susana Carvalho and Megan Beardmore-Herd

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Subject:
Archaeology
The origin of technology is believed to have marked a major adaptive shift in human evolution. Understanding the evolutionary process(es) underlying the first human adaptation to tool use, ... More

The Archaeology of Political Complexity in West Africa Through 1450 CE  

Stephen Dueppen

Political complexity in archaeological research has traditionally been defined as socio-political differentiation (roles, statuses, offices) integrated through centralized systems of power ... More

The Dar es Salaam School of African History  

Gregory H. Maddox

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The Dar es Salaam School of African History refers to the work of a group of historians based at what became the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Led initially by Terrance O. ... More

The History of Migrant Labor in South Africa (1800–2014)  

Peter Delius

Online publication date:
May 2017
A pervasive system of migrant labor played a fundamental part in shaping the past and present of South Africa’s economy and society and has left indelible marks on the wider region. South ... More

The Internet and Social Media as Sources  

Aubrey Bloomfield and Sean Jacobs

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The Internet and social media increasingly are becoming sources about the African past and present in ways that will influence to some extent how history will be learnt and the form that ... More

The Nile Waters Issue  

Terje Tvedt

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
To understand the role of the modern Nile in African history, it is first necessary to have familiarity with the premodern “natural” Nile, including both its hydrology and societal ... More

The Wisconsin School of African History  

Joseph C. Miller

The University of Wisconsin-Madison has been a prominent producer of doctorates in African history since 1963. As of 2017 the institution had granted more than 110 degrees. Philip D. ... More

Travelers’ Accounts as Sources  

Adam Jones

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Accounts written by foreigners—especially Europeans—about what they saw in Africa constitute one of the major sources for African history between c. 1450 and c. 1900. Some were published, ... More

Tropical Africa in the Global Economy  

Ralph A. Austen

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Tropical Africa has been in communication with the global economy since at least the last centuries bce through either land travel across the Sahara to the Mediterranean or navigation ... More

Ujamaa  

Michael Jennings

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The idea of Ujamaa emerged from the writing and speeches of Tanzania’s first president, Julius K Nyerere, from the late 1950s and into the 1960s. Usually translated as “familyhood,” it was ... More

Urbanization in East Africa, circa 900–2010 CE  

Andrew Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
East Africa’s urban past is broken down into five historical periods. The first (c. 900–1500 ce) saw the emergence of an urban Swahili culture on the East African coast that flourished ... More

Urban Society in Colonial Sudan  

Ahmad Alawad Sikainga

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
As in the rest of Africa, the establishment of colonial rule has accelerated the pace of urban growth in the Sudan. During the period of British colonial rule (1898–1956), a number of new ... More

Uwilingiyimana, Agathe  

Jennie Burnet

Agathe Uwilingiyimana was the first woman prime minister of Rwanda and only the second woman prime minister on the African continent. A Hutu from southern Rwanda, she was among the first ... More

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