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Public Authorities  

Gail Radford

Public authorities are agencies created by governments to engage directly in the economy for public purposes. They differ from standard agencies in that they operate outside the ... More

Public Housing in Urban America  

D. Bradford Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Public housing emerged during the New Deal as a progressive effort to end the scourge of dilapidated housing in American cities. Reformers argued that the private market had failed to ... More

Public Lands and Their Administration  

Adam M. Sowards

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For more than a century after the republic’s founding in the 1780s, American law reflected the ideal that the commons—the public domain—should be turned into private property. As Americans ... More

Public Sector Unionism  

Joseph E. Hower

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Government employees are an essential part of the early-21st-century labor movement in the United States. Teachers, firefighters, and police officers are among the most heavily unionized ... More

Public Space in North American Cities  

Jessica Ellen Sewell

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
From 1800 to 2000, cities grew enormously, and saw an expansion of public spaces to serve the varied needs of a diverse population living in ever more cramped and urban circumstances. ... More

Puerto Ricans in the United States  

Lorrin Thomas

Puerto Rican migrants have resided in the United States since before the Spanish-Cuban-American War of 1898, when the United States took possession of the island of Puerto Rico as part of ... More

The Puritans  

Sarah Rivett

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The Puritans were a group of people loosely defined through their shared adherence to the reformed theological tradition, largely following the work of John Calvin. Beginning in the 16th ... More

Race and the Origins of Plantation Slavery  

Justin Roberts

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
“Twenty and odd” Africans arrived in Virginia aboard a Dutch vessel in 1619 shortly after permanent colonization of the English Americas began. There has been significant academic debate ... More

Race, Gender, and Sex Education in 20th-Century America  

Courtney Q. Shah

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A concerted movement to promote sex education in America emerged in the early 20th century as part of a larger public health movement that also responded to the previous century’s concerns ... More

Race, Gender, and the Making of New Netherland  

Susanah Shaw Romney

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
On the mid-Atlantic coast between 1624 and 1664, the Dutch developed a successful and expansive colony, one that depended on particular interactions among women and men from American, ... More

Racial Diversity and Suburban Politics in 20th-Century Los Angeles  

Hillary Jenks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Radicalism in America after 1945  

Vaneesa Cook

Online publication date:
May 2017
Radicalism in the United States since 1945 has been varied, complex, and often fragmented, making it difficult to analyze as a coherent movement. Communist and pro-Soviet organizations ... More

Railroads in US History  

Albert Churella

Since the early 1800s railroads have served as a critical element of the transportation infrastructure in the United States and have generated profound changes in technology, finance, ... More

Rap Music  

Austin McCoy

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Rap is the musical practice of hip hop culture that features vocalists, or MCs, reciting lyrics over an instrumental beat that emerged out of the political and economic transformations of ... More

Regulating America’s Natural Environment  

Bart Elmore

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From the founding of the American republic through the 19th century, the nation’s environmental policy mostly centered on promoting American settlers’ conquest of the frontier. Early ... More

Religion and Labor in the 20th Century  

Matthew Pehl

America’s tremendous diversities of faith, region, and ethnicity complicate efforts to generalize relationships between religious groups and the labor movement. Americans’ historic and ... More

Religion and Race in America  

Emily Suzanne Clark

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Religion and race provide rich categories of analysis for American history. Neither category is stable. They change, shift, and develop in light of historical and cultural contexts. ... More

Religion in African American History  

Judith Weisenfeld

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Dynamic and creative exchanges among different religions, including indigenous traditions, Protestant and Catholic Christianity, and Islam, all with developing theologies and institutions, ... More

Religion in Post-1945 America  

Darren Dochuk

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jimmy Carter’s “Crisis of Confidence Speech” of July 1979 was a critical juncture in post-1945 U.S. politics, but it also marks an exemplary pivot in post-1945 religion. Five dimensions of ... More

Religion in the American City, 1600–1900  

Kyle B. Roberts

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
From Cahokia to Newport, from Santa Fe to Chicago, cities have long exerted an important influence over the development of American religion; in turn, religion has shaped the life of ... More

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