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The United States and the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland, 1967–1998  

James Cooper

The relationship between the United States and the island of Ireland combines nostalgic sentimentality and intervention in the sectarian conflict known as the “Troubles.” Irish migration ... More

The United States and the United Nations  

Michelle Getchell

The United States was heavily involved in creating the United Nations in 1945 and drafting its charter. The United States continued to exert substantial clout in the organization after its ... More

The United States at the End of the Cold War, 1989–1993  

James Graham Wilson

The Cold War may have ended on the evening of November 9, 1989, when East German border guards opened up checkpoints and allowed their fellow citizens to stream into West Berlin; it ... More

The United States in the 1920s  

Paul V. Murphy

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Americans grappled with the implications of industrialization, technological progress, urbanization, and mass immigration with startling vigor and creativity in the 1920s even as wide ... More

The United States–Mexico Border  

C. J. Alvarez

The region that today constitutes the United States–Mexico borderland has evolved through various systems of occupation over thousands of years. Beginning in time immemorial, the land was ... More

United States Strategy in the Asia Pacific  

Michael R. Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
American strategy in the Asia Pacific over the past two centuries has been marked by strong and often contradictory impulses. On the one hand, the western Pacific has served as a fertile ... More

United States Vagrancy Laws  

Risa L. Goluboff and Adam Sorensen

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The crime of vagrancy has deep historical roots in American law and legal culture. Originating in 16th-century England, vagrancy laws came to the New World with the colonists and soon ... More

United States Foreign Economic Aid  

Jeffrey F. Taffet

In the first half of the 20th century, and more actively in the post–World War II period, the United States government used economic aid programs to advance its foreign policy interests. ... More

Universities and Information Centers in U.S. Cities  

LaDale Winling

The transformation of post-industrial American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries includes several economically robust metropolitan centers that stand as new models of urban ... More

Universities in America since 1945  

Christopher P. Loss

Until World War II, American universities were widely regarded as good but not great centers of research and learning. This changed completely in the press of wartime, when the federal ... More

Urban Destruction during the Civil War  

Megan Kate Nelson

During the American Civil War, Union and Confederate commanders made the capture and destruction of enemy cities a central feature of their military campaigns. They did so for two reasons. ... More

Urban Exceptionalism in the American South  

David Goldfield

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
While colonial New Englanders gathered around town commons, settlers in the Southern colonials sprawled out on farms and plantations. The distinctions had more to do with the varying ... More

Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880–1929  

Jonathan Rees

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Between 1880 and 1929, industrialization and urbanization expanded in the United States faster than ever before. Industrialization, meaning manufacturing in factory settings using machines ... More

Urban Politics in the United States before 1940  

James J. Connolly

Online publication date:
May 2016
The convergence of mass politics and the growth of cities in 19th-century America produced sharp debates over the character of politics in urban settings. The development of what came to ... More

Urban Politics in the United States since 1945  

Lily Geismer

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Urban politics provides a means to understand the major political and economic trends and transformations of the last seventy years in American cities. The growth of the federal ... More

Urban Riots and Rioting in the United States, 1800–2000  

Alex Elkins

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Rioting in the United States since 1800 has adhered to three basic traditions: regulating communal morality, defending community from outside threats, and protesting government abuse of ... More

Urban Tourism in the U.S. since 1800  

J. Mark Souther

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Prior to the railroad age, American cities generally lacked reputations as tourist travel destinations. As railroads created fast, reliable, and comfortable transportation in the 19th ... More

U.S.-Argentine Relations  

Jennifer Hoyt

Relations between the United States and Argentina can be best described as a cautious embrace punctuated by moments of intense frustration. Although never the center of U.S.–Latin American ... More

U.S.-Bolivia Relations  

James F. Siekmeier

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, U.S. officials often viewed Bolivia as both a potential “test case” for U.S. economic foreign policy and a place where Washington’s broad visions ... More

US-Chilean Relations  

Patrick William Kelly

The relationship between Chile and the United States pivoted on the intertwined questions of how much political and economic influence Americans would exert over Chile and the degree to ... More

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