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Race, Gender, and Sex Education in 20th-Century America  

Courtney Q. Shah

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A concerted movement to promote sex education in America emerged in the early 20th century as part of a larger public health movement that also responded to the previous century’s concerns ... More

Radicalism in America after 1945  

Vaneesa Cook

Online publication date:
May 2017
Radicalism in the United States since 1945 has been varied, complex, and often fragmented, making it difficult to analyze as a coherent movement. Communist and pro-Soviet organizations ... More

Rap Music  

Austin McCoy

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Rap is the musical practice of hip hop culture that features vocalists, or MCs, reciting lyrics over an instrumental beat that emerged out of the political and economic transformations of ... More

Religion and Labor in the 20th Century  

Matthew Pehl

America’s tremendous diversities of faith, region, and ethnicity complicate efforts to generalize relationships between religious groups and the labor movement. Americans’ historic and ... More

Religion in Post-1945 America  

Darren Dochuk

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jimmy Carter’s “Crisis of Confidence Speech” of July 1979 was a critical juncture in post-1945 U.S. politics, but it also marks an exemplary pivot in post-1945 religion. Five dimensions of ... More

Rock and Roll  

Eric Weisbard

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Rock and roll, a popular music craze of the mid-1950s, turned a loud, fast, and sexy set of sounds rooted in urban, black, working class, and southern America into the pop preference as ... More

Russian-U.S. Foreign Relations, 1917–1991  

Margaret Peacock

In 1835, Alexis de Tocqueville argued in Democracy in America that there were “two great nations in the world.” They had started from different historical points but seemed to be heading ... More

The 1960s  

Robert O. Self

Few decades in American history reverberate with as much historical reach or glow as brightly in living mythology as the 1960s. During those years Americans reanimated and reinvented the ... More

The 1980s  

Doug Rossinow

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The decade of the 1980s represented a turning point in American history—a crucial era, marked by political conservatism and an individualistic ethos. The 1980s also witnessed a dramatic ... More

The 1950s  

Jennifer Delton

Online publication date:
Oct 2015
The 1950s have typically been seen as a complacent, conservative time between the end of World War II and the radical 1960s, when anticommunism and the Cold War subverted reform and ... More

Schools in US Cities  

Ansley T. Erickson

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
“Urban infrastructure” calls to mind railways, highways, and sewer systems. Yet the school buildings—red brick, limestone, or concrete, low-slung, turreted, or glass-fronted—that hold and ... More

Service Economies and the American Postindustrial City, 1950–Present  

Patrick Vitale

In the seventy years since the end of World War II (1939–1945), postindustrialization—the exodus of manufacturing and growth of finance and services—has radically transformed the economy ... More

The Sit-In Movement  

Christopher W. Schmidt

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
One of the most significant protest campaigns of the civil rights era, the lunch counter sit-in movement began on February 1, 1960 when four young African American men sat down at the ... More

Social Science and Foreign Affairs  

Joy Rohde

Since the social sciences began to emerge as scholarly disciplines in the last quarter of the 19th century, they have frequently offered authoritative intellectual frameworks that have ... More

The Society of American Indians  

K. Tsianina Lomawaima

In 1911, a group of American Indian intellectuals organized what would become known as the Society of American Indians, or SAI. SAI members convened in annual meetings between 1911 and ... More

Street Gangs in the 20th-Century American City  

Andrew Diamond

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Conceptions of what constitutes a street gang or a youth gang have varied since the seminal sociological studies on these entities in the 1920s. Organizations of teenage youths and young ... More

Suburbanization in the United States after 1945  

Becky Nicolaides and Andrew Wiese

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Mass migration to suburban areas was a defining feature of American life after 1945. Before World War II, just 13% of Americans lived in suburbs. By 2010, however, suburbia was home to ... More

Teacher Unionism in the 20th-Century United States  

Adam Mertz

Since the turn of the 20th century, teachers have tried to find a balance between bettering their own career prospects as workers and educating their students as public servants. To reach ... More

Technology and the Environment  

Timothy James LeCain

Technology and environmental history are both relatively young disciplines among Americanists, and during their early years they developed as distinctly different and even antithetical ... More

The Counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s  

Blake Slonecker

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
In the decade after 1965, radicals responded to the alienating features of America’s technocratic society by developing alternative cultures that emphasized authenticity, individualism, ... More

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