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The First Red Scare  

Adam J. Hodges

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The first Red Scare, which occurred in 1919–1920, emerged out of longer clashes in the United States over the processes of industrialization, immigration, and urbanization as well as ... More

Food and Agriculture in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

Gabriella M. Petrick

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Food in 19th-Century American Cities  

Cindy R. Lobel

Over the course of the 19th century, American cities developed from small seaports and trading posts to large metropolises. Not surprisingly, foodways and other areas of daily life changed ... More

Food in 20th-Century American Cities  

Adam Shprintzen

Changing foodways, the consumption and production of food, access to food, and debates over food shaped the nature of American cities in the 20th century. As American cities transformed ... More

Forests and Logging in the United States  

Erik Loomis

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Humans have utilized American forests for a wide variety of uses from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Native Americans heavily shaped forests to serve their needs, helping to ... More

Freedom of the Press  

Sam Lebovic

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
According to the First Amendment of the US Constitution, Congress is barred from abridging the freedom of the press (“Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or ... More

Frontier Politics, Providentialism, and “Hobbism” in Bacon’s Rebellion  

Alexander B. Haskell

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676–1677) was an uprising in the Virginia colony that its participants experienced as both a civil breakdown and a period of intense cosmic disorder. Although Thomas ... More

Fur Trades  

Carolyn Podruchny and Stacy Nation-Knapper

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
From the 15th century to the present, the trade in animal fur has been an economic venture with far-reaching consequences for both North Americans and Europeans (in which North Americans ... More

Gambling in the Northern City: 1800 to 2000  

Matthew Vaz

While American gambling has a historical association with the lawlessness of the frontier and with the wasteful leisure practices of Southern planters, it was in large cities where ... More

Gender Rights and American Employment  

Katherine Turk

Throughout American history, gender, meaning notions of essential differences between women and men, has shaped how Americans have defined and engaged in productive activity. Work has been ... More

Gender Roles, Women’s Rights, and the Polarization of American Politics in the Late 20th Century  

Marjorie J. Spruill

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The late 20th century saw gender roles transformed as the so-called Second Wave of American feminism that began in the 1960s gained support. By the early 1970s public opinion increasingly ... More

Genocide and American Indian History  

Jeffrey Ostler

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
The issue of genocide and American Indian history has been contentious. Many writers see the massive depopulation of the indigenous population of the Americas after 1492 as a clear-cut ... More

Gentrification in the United States  

Suleiman Osman

Online publication date:
May 2016
Gentrification is one of the most controversial issues in American cities today. But it also remains one of the least understood. Few agree on how to define it or whether it is boon or ... More

Globalization and the American City  

Betsy A. Beasley

American cities have been transnational in nature since the first urban spaces emerged during the colonial period. Yet the specific shape of the relationship between American cities and ... More

The Great Depression  

Erik Gellman and Margaret Rung

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
From the late 1920s through the 1930s, countries on every inhabited continent suffered through a dramatic and wrenching economic contraction termed the Great Depression, an economic ... More

The Great Migration in Context: The Chicago Experience, 1916–1918  

Christopher R. Reed

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The unanticipated and massive migration of half a million African Americans between 1916 and 1918 from the racially oppressive South to the welcoming North surprised the nation. Directly ... More

The Great Migrations and Black Urban Life in the United States, 1914–1970  

Tyina Steptoe

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
During the 20th century, the black population of the United States transitioned from largely rural to mostly urban. In the early 1900s the majority of African Americans lived in rural, ... More

Haiti and the Early United States  

Philippe R. Girard

Haiti (known as Saint-Domingue until it gained its independence from France in 1804) had a noted economic and political impact on the United States during the era of the American ... More

Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy  

Timothy Messer-Kruse

The Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy of 1886 is a landmark in American social and political history. On May 4, 1886, during an open-air meeting near Haymarket Square in Chicago, someone threw ... More

History of the U.S. Supreme Court  

Timothy S. Huebner

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The Supreme Court of the United States stands at the head of the nation’s judicial system. Created in Article III of the Constitution of 1787 but obscured by the other branches of ... More

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