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Housing Policy Across the United States  

Kristin M. Szylvian

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Federal housing policy has been primarily devoted to maintaining the economic stability and profitability of the private sector real estate, household finance, and home-building and supply ... More

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy  

Sarah B. Snyder

In its formulation of foreign policy, the United States takes account of many priorities and factors, including national security concerns, economic interests, and alliance relationships. ... More

Ideas of Race in Early America  

Sean P. Harvey

“Race,” as a concept denoting a fundamental division of humanity and usually encompassing cultural as well as physical traits, was crucial in early America. It provided the foundation for ... More

Immigration to American Cities, 1800–1924  

Hidetaka Hirota

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Between 1820 and 1924, nearly thirty-six million immigrants entered the United States. Prior to the Civil War, the vast majority of immigrants were northern and western Europeans, though ... More

Immigration to American Cities, 1925–2017  

Charlotte Brooks

The Immigration Act of 1924 was in large part the result of a deep political and cultural divide in America between heavily immigrant cities and far less diverse small towns and rural ... More

Immigration to the United States after 1945  

Xiaojian Zhao

Post-1945 immigration to the United States differed fairly dramatically from America’s earlier 20th- and 19th-century immigration patterns, most notably in the dramatic rise in numbers of ... More

Indian Removals  

John P. Bowes

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Indian removals as a topic primarily encompasses the relocation of Native American tribes from American-claimed states and territories east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the ... More

Indian Slavery  

Christina Snyder

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
The history of American slavery began long before the first Africans arrived at Jamestown in 1619. Evidence from archaeology and oral tradition indicates that for hundreds, perhaps ... More

Indigenous Politics in Pontiac’s War  

Andrew Sturtevant

Online publication date:
May 2018
Although often attributed to the Odawa ogima, or headman, Pontiac, the conflict that bears his name was the work of a large and complicated network of Native people in the Ohio Valley, ... More

Industry, Commerce, and Urbanization in the United States, 1790–1870  

David Schley

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The eighty years from 1790 to 1870 were marked by dramatic economic and demographic changes in the United States. Cities in this period grew faster than the country as a whole, drawing ... More

Infrastructure: Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century Urban America  

Jay Young

Mass transit has been part of the urban scene in the United States since the early 19th century. Regular steam ferry service began in New York City in the early 1810s and horse-drawn ... More

Infrastructure: Streets, Roads, and Highways  

Peter Norton

By serving travelers and commerce, roads and streets unite people and foster economic growth. But as they develop, roads and streets also disrupt old patterns, upset balances of power, and ... More

Infrastructure: Water and Sewers  

Joel A. Tarr

Urban water supply and sewage disposal facilities are critical parts of the urban infrastructure. They have enabled cities and their metropolitan areas to function as centers of commerce, ... More

Intelligence and U.S. Foreign Relations  

Thomas A. Reinstein

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The United States has a rich history of intelligence in the conduct of foreign relations. Since the Revolutionary War, intelligence has been most relevant to U.S. foreign policy in two ... More

Iran-U.S. Relations  

Kelly J. Shannon

Historian James A. Bill famously described America’s relationship with Iran as a tragedy. “Few international relationships,” he wrote, “have had a more positive beginning than that which ... More

Irish American Working Class  

David Brundage

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Between the 1790s and the 1990s, the Irish American population grew from some 500,000 to nearly 40 million. Part of this growth was due to immigration, especially in the years of the Great ... More

Isolationism  

Justus D. Doenecke

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For the United States, isolationism is best defined as avoidance of wars outside the Western Hemisphere, particularly in Europe; opposition to binding military alliances; and the ... More

Japanese American Resettlement in Postwar America: The Los Angeles Experience  

Jean-Paul deGuzman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Racism and xenophobia, but also resilience and community building, characterize the return of thousands of Japanese Americans, or Nikkei, to the West Coast after World War II. Although the ... More

Japanese Immigrant Gambling in Early 20th-Century California  

Chrissy Yee Lau

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Gambling was a central facet of life for Japanese male laborers in early 20th-century California. From the late 19th to the early 20th century, labor contractors and Chinese gambling dens ... More

Japantown and the Fillmore District  

Clement Lai

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Many Asian American neighborhoods faced displacement after World War II because of urban renewal or redevelopment under the 1949 Housing Act. In the name of blight removal and slum ... More

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