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The American War for Independence as a Revolutionary War  

Michael A. McDonnell

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The American War for Independence lasted eight years. It was one of the longest and bloodiest wars in America’s history, and yet it was not such a protracted conflict merely because the ... More

Death in Colonial North America: Cross-Cultural Encounters  

Erik R. Seeman

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Death is universal yet is experienced in culturally specific ways. Because of this, when individuals in colonial North America encountered others from different cultural backgrounds, they ... More

The Enlightenment and America  

John M. Dixon

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The Enlightenment, a complex cultural phenomenon that lasted approximately from the late seventeenth century until the early nineteenth century, contained a dynamic mix of contrary beliefs ... More

Frontier Politics, Providentialism, and “Hobbism” in Bacon’s Rebellion  

Alexander B. Haskell

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676–1677) was an uprising in the Virginia colony that its participants experienced as both a civil breakdown and a period of intense cosmic disorder. Although Thomas ... More

Indigenous Politics in Pontiac’s War  

Andrew Sturtevant

Online publication date:
May 2018
Although often attributed to the Odawa ogima, or headman, Pontiac, the conflict that bears his name was the work of a large and complicated network of Native people in the Ohio Valley, ... More

Infrastructure: Streets, Roads, and Highways  

Peter Norton

By serving travelers and commerce, roads and streets unite people and foster economic growth. But as they develop, roads and streets also disrupt old patterns, upset balances of power, and ... More

King Philip’s War, 1675–1678  

Lisa T. Brooks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Law in Early America  

Sally Hadden

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Law in early America came from many sources. To focus exclusively on the English common law excludes other vital sources including (but not limited to) civil law, canon law, lex mercatoria ... More

A Military History of the American Revolution, 1754–1783  

Stephen Conway

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
The military history of the American Revolution is more than the history of the War of Independence. The Revolution itself had important military causes. The experience of the Seven Years’ ... More

Print, the Press, and the American Revolution  

Robert G. Parkinson

According to David Ramsay, one of the first historians of the American Revolution, “in establishing American independence, the pen and press had merit equal to that of the sword.” Because ... More

The Puritans  

Sarah Rivett

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The Puritans were a group of people loosely defined through their shared adherence to the reformed theological tradition, largely following the work of John Calvin. Beginning in the 16th ... More

Race, Gender, and the Making of New Netherland  

Susanah Shaw Romney

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
On the mid-Atlantic coast between 1624 and 1664, the Dutch developed a successful and expansive colony, one that depended on particular interactions among women and men from American, ... More

The Rise and Fall of Mississippian Ancient Towns and Cities, 1000–1700  

Robbie Ethridge

The story of the pre-Columbian Mississippi Period (1000 ce–1600 ce) of the American South and parts of the Midwest is the story of the rise of the ancient Mississippian towns and cities ... More

The Salem Witch Trials  

Emerson W. Baker

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The Salem Witch Trials are one of the best known, most studied, and most important events in early American history. The afflictions started in Salem Village (present-day Danvers), ... More

Seaport Cities in North America, 1600–1800  

Emma Hart

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Since many North American indigenous societies also built and inhabited towns, America was not an entirely rural continent before the arrival of Europeans. Nevertheless, when Europeans set ... More

The Significance of Society in the 18th Century: Conversations about Governance  

Andrew Cayton

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The American Revolution was an episode in a transatlantic outcry against the corruption of the British balance of power and liberty institutionalized in the Glorious Revolution of ... More

Smuggling in Early America  

Christian J. Koot

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Smuggling was a regular feature of the economy of colonial British America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Though the very nature of illicit commerce means that the extent of this trade is ... More

U.S. Indian Policy, 1783–1830  

David A. Nichols

Online publication date:
Oct 2015
From 1783 to 1830, American Indian policy reflected the new American nation-state’s desire to establish its own legitimacy and authority, by controlling Native American peoples and ... More

Women and Religion in Colonial North America and the United States  

Catherine A. Brekus

Historically, women in colonial North America and the United States have been deeply influenced by their religious traditions. Even though world religions like Judaism, Christianity, ... More

Women, Race, and the Law in Early America  

Terri L. Snyder

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Everywhere across European and Indigenous settlements in 17th- and 18th-century North America and the Caribbean, the law or legal practices shaped women’s status and conditioned their ... More

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