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American Film since 1945  

Joshua Gleich

Over the past seventy years, the American film industry has transformed from mass-producing movies to producing a limited number of massive blockbuster movies on a global scale. Hollywood ... More

American Labor and Working-Class History, 1900–1945  

Jeffrey Helgeson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Early 20th century American labor and working-class history is a subfield of American social history that focuses attention on the complex lives of working people in a rapidly changing ... More

America’s Wars on Poverty and the Building of the Welfare State  

David Torstensson

On January 5, 2014—the fiftieth anniversary of President Lyndon Johnson’s launch of the War on Poverty—the New York Times asked a panel of opinion leaders a simple question: “Does the U.S. ... More

Antebellum U.S. Labor Markets  

Joshua L. Rosenbloom

The United States economy underwent major transformations between American independence and the Civil War through rapid population growth, the development of manufacturing, the onset of ... More

Autoworkers and Their Unions  

Daniel Clark

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Since the introduction of “Fordism” in the early 1910s, which emphasized technological improvements and maximizing productive efficiency, US autoworkers have struggled with repetitive, ... More

Bracero Guest Worker Program  

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Movement  

Matt Garcia

In September 1962, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) held its first convention in Fresno, California, initiating a multiracial movement that would result in the creation of ... More

Communist Party USA, 1919 to 1957  

James R. Barrett

The largest and most important revolutionary socialist organization in US history, the Communist Party USA was always a minority influence. It reached considerable size and influence, ... More

Dockworkers in America  

Peter Cole

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The history of dockworkers in America is as fascinating and important as it is unfamiliar. Those who worked along the shore loading and unloading ships played an invaluable role in an ... More

Domestic Workers in U.S. History  

Vanessa May

Online publication date:
May 2017
Domestic work was, until 1940, the largest category of women’s paid labor. Despite the number of women who performed domestic labor for pay, the wages and working conditions were often ... More

Employers’ Associations and Open Shops in the United States  

Chad Pearson

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Employers began organizing with one another to reduce the power of organized labor in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Irritated by strikes, boycotts, and unions’ desire to achieve ... More

Globalization and the American City  

Betsy A. Beasley

American cities have been transnational in nature since the first urban spaces emerged during the colonial period. Yet the specific shape of the relationship between American cities and ... More

The Great Depression  

Erik Gellman and Margaret Rung

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
From the late 1920s through the 1930s, countries on every inhabited continent suffered through a dramatic and wrenching economic contraction termed the Great Depression, an economic ... More

Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy  

Timothy Messer-Kruse

The Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy of 1886 is a landmark in American social and political history. On May 4, 1886, during an open-air meeting near Haymarket Square in Chicago, someone threw ... More

Irish American Working Class  

David Brundage

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Between the 1790s and the 1990s, the Irish American population grew from some 500,000 to nearly 40 million. Part of this growth was due to immigration, especially in the years of the Great ... More

Labor and the Catholic Church  

Steve Rosswurm

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The US Catholic Church was for most of its history—and, in many places, still is—a working-class church. The choice for worship by successive waves of immigrants, from the Irish to the ... More

McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare  

Landon R. Y. Storrs

The second Red Scare refers to the fear of communism that permeated American politics, culture, and society from the late 1940s through the 1950s, during the opening phases of the Cold War ... More

Mexican Immigration to the United States  

Ramón A. Gutiérrez

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Municipal Housing in America  

Margaret Garb

Housing in America has long stood as a symbol of the nation’s political values and a measure of its economic health. In the 18th century, a farmhouse represented Thomas Jefferson’s ideal ... More

The New Deal  

Wendy L. Wall

The New Deal generally refers to a set of domestic policies implemented by the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in response to the crisis of the Great Depression. Propelled by ... More

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