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Agriculture, Food, and the Environment  

Kathleen A. Brosnan and Jacob Blackwell

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Throughout history, food needs bonded humans to nature. The transition to agriculture constituted slow, but revolutionary ecological transformations. After 1500 ce, agricultural goods, as ... More

The American Antinuclear Movement  

Paul Rubinson

Spanning countries across the globe, the antinuclear movement was the combined effort of millions of people to challenge the superpowers’ reliance on nuclear weapons during the Cold War. ... More

American Environmental Diplomacy  

Kurk Dorsey

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
From its inception as a nation in 1789, the United States has engaged in an environmental diplomacy that has included attempts to gain control of resources, as well as formal diplomatic ... More

American Environmental Policy since 1964  

Richard N. L. Andrews

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Between 1964 and 2017, the United States adopted the concept of environmental policy as a new focus for a broad range of previously disparate policy issues affecting human interactions ... More

Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Movement  

Matt Garcia

In September 1962, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) held its first convention in Fresno, California, initiating a multiracial movement that would result in the creation of ... More

Climate Change and the American City  

Andrew Hurley

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
American cities developed under relatively quiescent climatic conditions. A gradual rise in average global temperatures during the 19th and 20th centuries had a negligible impact on how ... More

DDT and Pesticides  

Frederick Rowe Davis

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The history of DDT and pesticides in America is overshadowed by four broad myths. The first myth suggests that DDT was the first insecticide deployed widely by American farmers. The second ... More

Energy in American History  

Aaron Sachs

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Energy systems have played a significant role in U.S. history; some scholars claim that they have determined a number of other developments. From the colonial period to the present, ... More

Environmental and Conservation Movements in Metropolitan America  

Robert R. Gioielli

By the late 19th century, American cities like Chicago and New York were marvels of the industrializing world. The shock urbanization of the previous quarter century, however, brought on a ... More

The Environment in the Atomic Age  

Rachel Rothschild

The development of nuclear technology had a profound influence on the global environment following the Second World War, with ramifications for scientific research, the modern ... More

Epidemics in Indian Country  

David S. Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Few developments in human history match the demographic consequences of the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Between 1500 and 1900 the human populations of the Americas were ... More

Food and Agriculture in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

Gabriella M. Petrick

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Forests and Logging in the United States  

Erik Loomis

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Humans have utilized American forests for a wide variety of uses from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Native Americans heavily shaped forests to serve their needs, helping to ... More

Infrastructure: Water and Sewers  

Joel A. Tarr

Urban water supply and sewage disposal facilities are critical parts of the urban infrastructure. They have enabled cities and their metropolitan areas to function as centers of commerce, ... More

Latino Environmentalism  

Sara C. Fingal

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The National Parks  

Donald Worster

The national parks of the United States have been one of the country’s most popular federal initiatives, and popular not only within the nation but across the globe. The first park was ... More

The Oil Industry  

Christopher J. Castañeda

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The modern oil industry began in 1859 with Edwin Drake’s discovery of oil at Titusville, Pennsylvania. Since then, this dynamic industry has experienced dramatic episodes of growth, ... More

Parks in Urban America  

David Schuyler

Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The creation and evolution of urban parks is in some ways a familiar story, especially given the attention that Frederick Law Olmsted’s work has commanded since the early 1970s. Following ... More

Public Lands and Their Administration  

Adam M. Sowards

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For more than a century after the republic’s founding in the 1780s, American law reflected the ideal that the commons—the public domain—should be turned into private property. As Americans ... More

Regulating America’s Natural Environment  

Bart Elmore

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From the founding of the American republic through the 19th century, the nation’s environmental policy mostly centered on promoting American settlers’ conquest of the frontier. Early ... More

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