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American Indian Activism after 1945  

Bradley Shreve

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
American Indian activism after 1945 was as much a part of the larger, global decolonization movement rooted in centuries of imperialism as it was a direct response to the ethos of civic ... More

Carlos Montezuma and the Emergence of American Indian Activism  

Maurice Crandall

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Carlos Montezuma was one of the most influential Indians of his day and a prominent leader among the Red Progressives of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Born to Yavapai parents in ... More

Christian Missions to American Indians  

Carol L. Higham

Online publication date:
May 2016
Comparing Catholic and Protestant missionaries in North America can be a herculean task. It means comparing many religious groups, at least five governments, and hundreds of groups of ... More

The Creek Confederacy  

Andrew Frank

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Creek Confederacy was a loose coalition of ethnically and linguistically diverse Native American towns that slowly coalesced as a political entity in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... More

Epidemics in Indian Country  

David S. Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Few developments in human history match the demographic consequences of the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Between 1500 and 1900 the human populations of the Americas were ... More

Federal Indian Law  

N. Bruce Duthu

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
United States law recognizes American Indian tribes as distinct political bodies with powers of self-government. Their status as sovereign entities predates the formation of the United ... More

Fur Trades  

Carolyn Podruchny and Stacy Nation-Knapper

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
From the 15th century to the present, the trade in animal fur has been an economic venture with far-reaching consequences for both North Americans and Europeans (in which North Americans ... More

Genocide and American Indian History  

Jeffrey Ostler

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
The issue of genocide and American Indian history has been contentious. Many writers see the massive depopulation of the indigenous population of the Americas after 1492 as a clear-cut ... More

Ideas of Race in Early America  

Sean P. Harvey

“Race,” as a concept denoting a fundamental division of humanity and usually encompassing cultural as well as physical traits, was crucial in early America. It provided the foundation for ... More

Indian Removals  

John P. Bowes

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Indian removals as a topic primarily encompasses the relocation of Native American tribes from American-claimed states and territories east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the ... More

Indian Slavery  

Christina Snyder

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
The history of American slavery began long before the first Africans arrived at Jamestown in 1619. Evidence from archaeology and oral tradition indicates that for hundreds, perhaps ... More

Indigenous Politics in Pontiac’s War  

Andrew Sturtevant

Online publication date:
May 2018
Although often attributed to the Odawa ogima, or headman, Pontiac, the conflict that bears his name was the work of a large and complicated network of Native people in the Ohio Valley, ... More

King Philip’s War, 1675–1678  

Lisa T. Brooks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Late 19th-Century U.S. Indian Policy  

C. Joseph Genetin-Pilawa

Online publication date:
May 2016
As the Civil War ended and U.S. leaders sought ways to reconstruct a devastated nation, many turned to westward expansion as a mechanism to give northerners and southerners a shared goal. ... More

The Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina  

Malinda Maynor Lowery

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The Lumbee tribe of North Carolina, including approximately 55,000 enrolled members, is the largest Indian community east of the Mississippi River. Lumbee history serves as a window into ... More

Native Americans and Cities  

Nicolas G. Rosenthal

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
An important relationship has existed between Native Americans and cities from pre-Columbian times to the early 21st century. Long before Europeans arrived in the Americas, indigenous ... More

Public Lands and Their Administration  

Adam M. Sowards

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For more than a century after the republic’s founding in the 1780s, American law reflected the ideal that the commons—the public domain—should be turned into private property. As Americans ... More

The Rise and Fall of Mississippian Ancient Towns and Cities, 1000–1700  

Robbie Ethridge

The story of the pre-Columbian Mississippi Period (1000 ce–1600 ce) of the American South and parts of the Midwest is the story of the rise of the ancient Mississippian towns and cities ... More

The Society of American Indians  

K. Tsianina Lomawaima

In 1911, a group of American Indian intellectuals organized what would become known as the Society of American Indians, or SAI. SAI members convened in annual meetings between 1911 and ... More

Tecumseh and the Shawnee Resistance Movement  

Stephen Warren

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Described as a “chief among chiefs” by the British, and by his arch-rival, William Henry Harrison, as “one of those uncommon geniuses which spring up occasionally to produce revolutions ... More

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