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Intellectual Trends in Imperial China  

Chang Woei Ong

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In a letter to his friend Wang Hui王回 (1023–1065), the great Song dynasty (960–1279) politician, scholar, thinker, and writer Wang Anshi王安石 (1021–1086) makes a distinction between the ... More

Inter-State Water Disputes in South India  

Leela Fernandes

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Subject:
South Asia, Urban
Water-related disputes in India have been a fraught area of contestation between state governments in the post-colonial period. Since the late 20th century, much of this conflict has been ... More

Islam in Southeast Asia to c. 1800  

R. Michael Feener

Southeast Asia has been a historical crossroads of major world civilizations for nearly two millennia. Muslim traders were sojourning along the shores of the Indonesian archipelago from at ... More

Islam, Insurgency, and Port Cities in Southeast Asia  

Joshua Gedacht

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Ismaili of Central Asia  

Daniel Beben

The Ismailis are one of the largest Muslim minority populations of Central Asia, and they make up the second largest Shiʿi Muslim community globally. First emerging in the second half of ... More

Japanese Empire in Hokkaido  

Philip Seaton

The temporal span of the Japanese Empire is most commonly given as 1895–1945, from the acquisition of Taiwan following Japan’s victory in the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan’s defeat in ... More

Japanese Empire in Manchuria  

Emer O'Dwyer

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Subject:
Japan, Political
China’s three northeastern provinces (Fengtian, Heilongjiang, and Jilin) were transfigured by Japanese imperialism in the opening decades of the 20th century. South Manchuria and the ... More

Kashmir: From Princely State to Insurgency  

Mridu Rai

Paradise lost, on fire, or on a river of hell: purple prose abounds in descriptions of Kashmir today. But in this instance, the hyperbole may be alarmingly close to reality. Since ... More

Khojas of Kashgar  

Alexandre Papas

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The Khojas of Kashgar name a Sufi lineage, which became a ruling dynasty in eastern Turkestan or present-day Xinjiang in western China. Founded by the Samarkandi spiritual master Ahmad ... More

Kievan Rus’ and Muscovy Under the Riurikids  

Janet Martin

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The medieval state of Kievan Rus’ took shape in the late 10th century when Vladimir (Volodimer), reportedly a descendant of the semi-legendary Ri͡urik, established his exclusive rule over ... More

The Kök Türk Empires  

Michael R. Drompp

Online publication date:
May 2018
The people who called themselves Türk (Chinese Tujue突厥) appear in historical records only a few years before they overthrow their political masters in the middle of the 6th century CE and ... More

Land and Water in Tsarist and Early Soviet Central Asia  

Beatrice Penati

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Precipitation and elevation shape land and water usage in Central Asia, distinguishing the southern irrigated oases from the steppes, deserts, and prairies, where instead nomadic ... More

Literary History of Bengal, 8th-19th century AD  

Thibaut d'Hubert

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The literary history of Bengal is characterized by a multilingual ecology that nurtured the development of Middle Bengali literature. It is around the turn of the second millennium, during ... More

Local Elites and Scholarship in Late Imperial China  

Steven B. Miles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Before the end of the Tang dynasty, cultural production was largely a court-centered activity. This began to change as the nature of China’s political, social, and cultural elite, the ... More

The Maldives as an Indian Ocean Crossroads  

Eva-Maria Knoll

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The Maldives form the central part of an underwater mountain range in the center of the Indian Ocean, creating a crossroads for seafaring, migration, trade, and warfare. Because of this ... More

Manchuria in Modern East Asia, 1600s–1949  

Dan Shao

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Subject:
China
Manchuria is an English geographical term that, in the past three centuries or so, has referred to the region that approximately overlaps the region of Northeast China (Liaoning, Jilin, ... More

Maritime Archaeology of the Indian Ocean  

Himanshu Prabha Ray

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The interface between the sea and the land and the communities that have historically traversed the Indian Ocean form the focus of this article. Maritime communities have been sustained by ... More

The Medieval Khwājagān and the Early Naqshbandīyya  

Ali Gibran Siddiqui

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The Khwājagān (lit. “Masters”) were a constellation of Ṣūfīs in 13th- to 16th-century Mawara an-Nahr and Khurasan. The Naqshbandīyya were Ṣūfīs from among the Khwājagān who followed the ... More

The Medieval Uyghurs of the 8th through 14th Centuries  

Michael C. Brose

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Subject:
Central Asia
The medieval Uyghurs became a political entity in the mid-8th century when they established their steppe empire as the inheritors of the ancient Türk steppe tribal confederation. They ... More

Meiji Revolution  

Hiroshi Mitani

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The Meiji Revolution (1853–1890) transformed Japan from a double-headed federation state with hereditary status system into a unitary monarchy that afforded greater rights and freedoms to ... More

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