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Buddhist Religious Practice in Imperial China  

Natasha Heller

Buddhist practice transformed the religious landscape in China, introducing new forms of mental cultivation and new ritual technologies within an altered cosmology of spiritual goals. ... More

The Canton Trade, 1700–1842  

Paul A. Van Dyke

Online publication date:
May 2017
In 1684, China reopened its doors to trade with the outside world, which had a huge impact on the development of global commerce. Canton quickly emerged as one of the few ports in the ... More

China and the Asian World, 1500–1900  

Matthew W. Mosca

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Subject:
China, Political
China’s relations with the Asian world between 1500 and 1900 were shaped by a variety of political, economic, and cultural factors. A common denominator in these international ... More

Chinese Ceramic Production and Trade  

John Miksic

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Ceramics are the most abundant types of artifacts made by human beings in the last 12,000 years. Chinese potters discern two types of products: earthenware (tao), which is porous and does ... More

Civil Law and Jurisprudence in Imperial China  

Nap-yin Lau

In terms of jurisdiction and punishment, the border between civil and criminal laws in imperial China is not clear cut. The same officials can handle both civil and criminal cases, and ... More

Daoism and Popular Religion in Imperial China  

Terry Kleeman

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Throughout the course of premodern China’s history, the planning and performance of religious ritual has been a primary concern. These offerings of bloody victuals, drink, and, later, ... More

Empire and Historiography in Southwest China  

John Herman

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Although frontier studies enjoy a long and robust history in China, a disproportionate amount of attention has focused on North China and its relations with Central and Northeast Asia, ... More

The Expansion of the Qing Dynasty of China and the Zunghar Mongol State  

Peter Perdue

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The Manchus, a powerful military state in northeast Eurasia, declared the founding of the Qing dynasty in the early 17th century. They conquered Beijing in 1644, and the core of Ming China ... More

Famine in Imperial and Modern China  

Kathryn Edgerton-Tarpley

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Famines have played an important role in China’s history. Because the Confucian classics interpreted natural disasters as warnings from Heaven, in ancient and imperial China feeding the ... More

Intellectual Trends in Imperial China  

Chang Woei Ong

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In a letter to his friend Wang Hui王回 (1023–1065), the great Song dynasty (960–1279) politician, scholar, thinker, and writer Wang Anshi王安石 (1021–1086) makes a distinction between the ... More

Local Elites and Scholarship in Late Imperial China  

Steven B. Miles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Before the end of the Tang dynasty, cultural production was largely a court-centered activity. This began to change as the nature of China’s political, social, and cultural elite, the ... More

Manchuria in Modern East Asia, 1600s–1949  

Dan Shao

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Subject:
China
Manchuria is an English geographical term that, in the past three centuries or so, has referred to the region that approximately overlaps the region of Northeast China (Liaoning, Jilin, ... More

Modern Hong Kong  

Steve Tsang

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Hong Kong entered its modern era when it became a British overseas territory in 1841. In its early years as a Crown Colony, it suffered from corruption and racial segregation but grew ... More

Mu Dan’s Poetry as a History of Modern China  

Huiwen Helen Zhang

An expeditionary force soldier. A jungle war survivor. A patriot who traded opportunities in the United States for a tedious journey home to the newly founded People’s Republic of China. A ... More

Nationalism and Minorities in China  

Sabine Dabringhaus

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Subject:
China, Political
China’s minority policy after 1949 combined the Qing legacy with a socialist affirmative strategy. The concept of a multiethnic Chinese state derived from Qing ideology and policy in the ... More

Opium in China  

Yangwen Zheng

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Opium was used as a medicinal herb during the Tang-Song dynastic era, if not earlier, but this medicinal role was transformed during the Ming dynasty as it became an ingredient in ... More

The Origins and Growth of the Chinese Communist Movement  

Xiaohong Xu

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Subject:
China, Political
When the origins and development of the Chinese Communist Movement before it seized the state power in 1949 are examined, while conventionally the movement is periodized according to its ... More

Print Culture and the Circulation of Knowledge in Imperial China  

Lucille Chia

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Publishing and Popular Literature in Imperial China  

Cynthia Brokaw

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Although popular literature circulated in manuscript from very early in Chinese history, the invention of woodblock printing or xylography in the 7th century greatly facilitated the ... More

Schools and Learning in Imperial China  

Linda Walton

From the consolidation of the Han empire (206 bce–220 ce) through the collapse of the Qing (1644–1911), ideas about education associated with Confucius (c. 551–479 bce) and his followers ... More

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