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Audience Costs, News Media, and Foreign Policy  

Ross A. Miller

Online publication date:
May 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
“Audience costs” represent situations where domestic audiences impose penalties on leaders for failed policies. This phenomenon has risen to a prominent position in the study of politics ... More

A Unified Analysis of the Diversionary and Constraint Accounts of Crisis Initiation  

Lisa J. Carlson and Raymond Dacey

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
The major empirical frameworks for understanding crisis initiation are the diversionary account and the constraint account. Both accounts deal with the influences that domestic audiences ... More

Austria and the European Union  

Paul Luif

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Austria was occupied at the end of World War II by the four Allies, but in contrast to Germany the four powers left in 1955—the condition being its declaration of permanent neutrality, on ... More

Authenticity and Sustainability in Responsible Tourism  

Jane Carnaffan

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. Tourism ... More

Autocracy  

Erica Frantz

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Dictatorships have dominated global politics for hundreds of years, from the pharaohs of Egypt to the absolute monarchs of Europe. Though democracy has since spread to much of the world, ... More

Autocratic Regimes and Foreign Policy  

Marianne Kneuer

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
The foreign policy of autocratic regimes reflects the research interest in the international behavior and decision making of domestic actors in nondemocratic regimes. The regime type (its ... More

The Balance of Power in World Politics  

Randall L. Schweller

Online publication date:
May 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
The balance of power—a notoriously slippery, murky, and protean term, endlessly debated and variously defined—is the core theory of international politics within the realist perspective. A ... More

The Baltic States in the European Union  

Tanel Kerikmäe

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Bargaining Models of War and the Stability of Peace in Post-Conflict Societies  

Margit Bussmann

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
A major challenge for countries that emerge from civil war is the stabilization of the post-conflict order in a way that fighting does not break out again. Recent empirical and theoretical ... More

Bargaining Theory, Civil War Outcomes, and War Recurrence: Assessing the Results of Empirical Tests of the Theory  

Caroline A. Hartzell

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Once ended, a significant number of civil wars recur. One influential empirical international relations theory on which scholars have drawn in an effort to provide an explanation for this ... More

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