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What Do We Know About Civil War Duration?: A Bargaining Perspective  

David E. Cunningham

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Civil wars vary greatly in duration—some end within months; others last for decades. What explains this variation? Civil wars drag on when no combatant can win a military victory and the ... More

What Do We Know About Global Financial Crises? Putting IPE and Economics in Conversation  

Michael Lee

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Since the 1970s, financial crises have been a consistent feature of the international economy, warranting study by economists and political scientists alike. Economists have made great ... More

What Helps Protect Human Rights: Human Rights Theory and Evidence  

Jessica Anderson and Amanda Murdie

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Empirical international relations (IR) theory developed three generalized statements regarding why human rights abuses occur. First, human rights abuses are a way for an unrestrained ... More

What is Political Participation?  

Jan W. van Deth

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Politics
Vibrant democracies are characterized by a continuous expansion of the available forms of participation. This expansion has confronted many researchers with the dilemma of using either a ... More

White, Eartha Mary Magdalene  

Wilma Peebles-Wilkins

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Eartha Mary Magdalene White (1876–1974) was a civic-minded Black businesswoman. She organized health and welfare services for the Black community in Jacksonville, Florida. She founded the ... More

White Ethnic Groups  

Kathryn P. Alessandria

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Research on White ethnics is lacking in the diversity literature; when included, they are used as the comparison for other ethnic groups. Diversity exists among White ethnics; consequences ... More

White, Michael  

Phylis J. Peterman

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Michael White (1948–2008), academic, researcher, adventurer, and athlete, is known as a leading developer of narrative family therapy. Narrative family therapy focuses on empowerment, ... More

Whitton, Charlotte  

Allan Moscovitch

Online publication date:
Nov 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Charlotte Whitton (1896–1975) was a woman of enormous energy, personal ambition, and drive. She had essentially three careers: as a social worker who was the guiding force behind the ... More

Wickenden, Elizabeth  

Eric R. Kingson

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of Social Work
Elizabeth Wickenden (1909–2001) was a social work administrator and advisor, policy writer, and advocate. In the 1950s, she launched an effective coalition of social welfare and labor ... More

widows  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Oxford Classical Dictionary
In Classical Athens were expected to live under the protection of a male relative and to remarry if possible. There was often an age-gap between husband and wife, and young widows were thought to be ... More

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