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abacus  

Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
An abacus (ἄβαξ, ἀβάκιον), a counting board, was the usual aid to reckoning in antiquity. The Greeks and Romans alike used a board with vertical columns, on which (working from right to left) units, ... More

Abaris  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Abaris, legendary devotee of *Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like *Aristeas whom *Pindar (fr. 270 Snell–Maehler) associated with the time of *Croesus—perhaps ... More

Abbott, Edith  

Jean K. Quam

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Edith Abbott (1876–1957) was a social worker and educator. She was Dean of the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago from 1924 to 1942 and she helped in ... More

Abbott, Grace  

Jean K. Quam

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Grace Abbott (1878–1939) was a teacher who went on to become Director of the Immigrants Protective League of Chicago and Director of the U.S. Children's Bureau. In 1934 she became ... More

The ABCs of Media and Children: Attention, Behavior, and Comprehension  

Ellen A. Wartella, Alexis R. Lauricella, Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan, and Drew P. Cingel

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Abdera  

James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Abdera, a flourishing Greek city east of the Nestus river on the coast of *Thrace (Diod. Sic. 13. 72. 2). It was traditionally founded as a colony of *Clazomenae in 654 bce, a date for which ... More

Abernathy, Ralph David  

Lou M. Beasley

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Ralph David Abernathy (1926–1990) was a pastor who became president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference after the assassination of Martin Luther King. He was director of ... More

Abhisamayālaṃkāra (Ornament for Clear Realization)  

James B. Apple

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
The Abhisamayālaṃkāra (Ornament for clear realization) is an instructional treatise on the Prajñāpāramitā, or Perfect Wisdom, whose authorship is traditionally attributed to Maitreyanātha ... More

Abortion  

D. Lynn Jackson

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Until the 19th century, abortion law was nonexistent and abortion was not seen as a moral issue. However, by the turn of the 20th century, abortion was legally defined and controlled in ... More

abortion  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Abortion was controversial in antiquity. Doctors taking the Hippocratic Oath (see hippocrates (2)) swore not to administer abortifacients, but other Hippocratic texts suggest that prostitutes (see ... More

Abortion in American Film since 2001  

Fran Bigman

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
In American cinema from 1916 to 2000, two main archetypes emerge in portrayals of women seeking abortion: prima donnas and martyrs/victims. While the prima donna category faded over the ... More

Absent Information in Integrative Environmental and Health Risk Communication  

Jari Lyytimäki and Timo Assmuth

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Communication is typically understood in terms of what is communicated. However, the importance of what is intentionally or unintentionally left out from the communication process is high ... More

Abstract Nouns in the Romance Languages  

Philipp Burdy

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Abydos  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Was the best harbour on the Asiatic side of the *Hellespont. In the Iliad (2. 836) an ally of Troy and then a Thracian settlement, it was colonized c.700 bce by Milesians (see ... More

Academic Capitalism  

Richard Münch

Online publication date:
May 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Academic capitalism is a unique hybrid that unites the scientific search for truth and the economic maximization of profits. It turns universities into enterprises competing for capital ... More

Academic Integrity  

Tracey Bretag

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Academic integrity is an interdisciplinary concept that provides the foundation for every aspect and all levels of education. The term evokes strong emotions in teachers, researchers, and ... More

Academic Novels  

Rob Morris

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
The academic novel answers two questions: What happens on a college campus? and What is college for? To answer the first question, the academic novel takes the form of high-spirited ... More

Academy  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Academy, public *gymnasium at Athens, sacred to the hero Academus, north-west of the Dipylon gate. It gave its name to the school founded there by *Plato (1) in the early 4th cent. and maintained by ... More

Acamas  

Emily Kearns

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Acamas, son of *Theseus and brother of *Demophon (1). Unknown to the Iliad, the brothers are certainly present at Troy in the Iliu Persis (fr. 4 Davies), and free their grandmother *Aethra from her ... More

Acanthus  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
null
Was probably a 7th-cent. colony of *Andros (Thuc. 4. 84) near the narrowest point of the Akte prong of *Chalcidice, and thus close to the canal dug in 480 bce on the orders of *Xerxes I of Persia ... More

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