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Online Communities and Knowledge Collaborations  

Samer Faraj and Takumi Shimizu

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Online communities (OCs) are emerging as effective spaces for knowledge collaboration and innovation. As a new form of organizing, they offer possibilities for collaboration that extend ... More

Organizational Happiness  

Howard Harris

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Organizational happiness is an intuitively attractive idea, notwithstanding the difficulty of defining happiness. A preference for unhappiness rather than happiness in an organization ... More

Organizational Innovation  

Fariborz Damanpour

Innovation is a complex construct and overlaps with a few other prevalent concepts such as technology, creativity, and change. Research on innovation spans many fields of inquiry including ... More

Organizational Learning and Adaptation  

Henrich R. Greve

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Organizational learning theory is motivated by the observation that organizations learn by encoding inferences from experience into their behavior. It seeks to answer the questions of what ... More

Product and Innovation Portfolio Management  

Vinícius Chagas Brasil and J.P. Eggers

In competitive strategy, firms manage two primary (non-financial) portfolios—the product portfolio and the innovation portfolio. Portfolio management involves resource allocation to ... More

Professions from a Gendered Perspective  

Isabel Boni-Le Goff and Nicky Le Feuvre

Professions or professional occupations have been studied through a large number of empirical and theoretical lenses over the last decades: as potential substitutes for organizations and ... More

Reflection and Intercultural Competence Development  

Luciara Nardon

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Increasing levels of cultural diversity requires a system of higher education structured to facilitate intercultural learning and develop individuals who are prepared to work in a ... More

Regulatory Shocks: Forms, Dynamics, and Consequences  

Nydia MacGregor and Tammy L. Madsen

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Regulatory shocks, either by imposing regulations or easing them (deregulation), yield abrupt and fundamental changes to the institutional rules governing competition and, in turn, the ... More

The Resource-Based View of the Firm  

Douglas Miller

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
The Resource-Based View of the firm (RBV) is a set of related theories sharing the assumptions of resource heterogeneity and resource immobility across firms. In this view, a firm is a ... More

Restructuring and Divestitures  

Donald D. Bergh

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Growth strategies have long been a priority for executive leadership. However, growth can also create problems. Leaders may need to use restructuring and divestiture actions to regain ... More

The Role of the Media in Corporate Governance  

Michael K. Bednar

Corporate governance scholars have long been interested in understanding the mechanisms through which firms and their leaders are held accountable for their actions. Recently, there has ... More

Science and Innovation Policy  

Cristina Chaminade and Bengt-Åke Lundvall

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Business and Management. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Social Movements and Their Impact on Business and Management  

Sarah A. Soule

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Do the activities of social movements (e.g., public protest, shareholder activism, boycotts, and sabotage) impact businesses, and if so, how do they impact businesses? When confronted by ... More

Social Norms in Organizations  

Jennifer E. Dannals and Dale T. Miller

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Social norms are a powerful force in organizations. While different literatures across fields have developed differing definitions and categories, social norms are commonly defined as and ... More

Strategic Flexibility and Competitive Advantage  

Kathryn Rudie Harrigan

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Concerns regarding strategic flexibility arose from companies’ need to survive excess capacity and flagging sales in the face of previously unforeseen competitive conditions. Strategic ... More

Strategic Planning in the Public Sector  

John Bryson and Lauren Hamilton Edwards

Strategic planning has become a fairly routine and common practice at all levels of government in the United States and elsewhere. It can be part of the broader practice of strategic ... More

The Swiss Watch Industry  

Pierre-Yves Donzé

The Swiss watch industry has enjoyed uncontested domination of the global market for more than two decades. Despite high costs and high wages, Switzerland is the home of most of the ... More

Tracking the Entrepreneurial Process with the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) Protocol  

Paul D. Reynolds

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In the early 1990s business creation was receiving a great deal of attention after it was clear that new firms were a major source of job creation. There was not, however, reliable data on ... More

Transaction Cost Economics as a Theory of the Firm, Management, and Governance  

Mikko Ketokivi and Joseph T. Mahoney

Which components should a manufacturing firm make in-house, which should it co-produce, and which should it outsource? Who should sit on the firm’s board of directors? What is the right ... More

University Technology Commercialization  

Kathleen R. Allen

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For decades researchers have studied various aspects of the technology transfer and commercialization process in universities in hopes of discovering effective methods for enabling more ... More

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