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Valens, Roman emperor, 364–78 CE  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Valens, Roman emperor (364–78 ce), the younger brother of *Valentinian I, who proclaimed him emperor of the eastern empire. He lacked his brother's military ability and forceful ... More

Valentinian I, Roman emperor, 364–375 CE  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Valentinian I, Roman emperor (364–375ce), born in 321 at Cibalae in *Pannonia. In February 364 when *Jovian died, he was commanding a guards regiment, and at Nicaea the generals and civil dignitaries ... More

Valentinian II, Roman emperor, 375–392 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Valentinian II, Roman emperor (375–92 ce), was the son of *Valentinian I. Born in 371, he was upon his father's death elevated by the troops at *Aquincum, but without the consent of *Valens and ... More

Valentinian III, Roman emperor, 425–55 CE  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Valentinian III, western Roman emperor (425–55 ce), born in 419, was the son of *Constantius III and Galla *Placidia. Expelled by a usurper, he was restored in 425 by his cousin, the eastern emperor ... More

Vandals  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Vandals, a Germanic people or confederation of peoples (see germans) met with in *Pliny(1) and *Tacitus(1) as the Vandili, an overall designation which seems to have included later independent groups ... More

Vatican  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Vatican, an extramural area of the city of Rome, on the right bank of the *Tiber around the mons Vaticanus. In the early empire the Vatican was the site of an imperial park (the horti ... More

Vegetius Renatus  

Michael B. Charles

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vegetius Renatus was a Latin author writing in the Late Empire. He wrote the Epitoma rei militaris, which deals with ways to improve Rome’s flagging military prowess—including revival of ... More

Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus, c. 540–c. 600 CE  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus (c. 540ce–c. 600), Christian Latin poet, born near Treviso in northern Italy and educated at Ravenna, he left Italy in 565 and later lived at ... More

vicarius  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
During the first two cents. ce, vicarius meant a substitute for an absent or deceased provincial governor. In the 3rd cent. vicarii were the equestrian *procurators of provinces who were specially ... More

Victorinus, Marcus Piavvonius  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Praetorian prefect (see praefectus praetorio) of the Gallic usurper, *Postumus, whom he succeeded in 269 AD after the ephemeral reign of Marius. Though he abandoned *Spain and lost eastern ... More

Zonaras, Johannes, Byzantine historian and canonist  

Arnaldo Momigliano

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A commander of the body-guard and imperial secretary, he was probably forced to retire into monastic life after the failure of the conspiracy to make Anna Comnena empress in 1118 ce. Living in exile ... More

Zosimus  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zosimus, Greek historian. Little is known of his life except that he had been advocatus fisci (see fiscus) and obtained the dignity of comes (see comites). His identification with either the sophist ... More

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