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Gargilius Martialis, Quintus, early to mid-3rd cent. CE  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Quintus Gargilius Martialis was famed for his work on *gardens (Serv. on G. 4. 147; Cassiod.Inst. 1. 28. 5). Part of the De hortis is extant, while two other fragments, on the medical properties of ... More

gems  

Frederick Norman Pryce, David Edward Eichholz, and Michael Vickers

Precious stones were valued in antiquity as possessing magical and medicinal virtues, as ornaments, and as seals when engraved with a device. Such engravings (intaglios) in soft media like steatite ... More

gladiators, combatants at games  

Garrett G. Fagan

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Gladiators were armed combatants who performed in the arena during Roman games called munera. They could be slaves, freeborn, or freedmen (ex-slaves). Slave gladiators were usually trained ... More

Glanum  

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Glanum (Γλανόν), a Greek and Roman town south of St-Rémy-de-Provence. The earliest element was a *Ligurian shrine, but in the 2nd cent. bce a Massiliote settlement grew up (see massalia), owing its ... More

glass  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Glass (ὕαλος (also 'rock crystal'), vitrum). The art of producing a vitreous surface on stone, powdered quartz (faience), or clay was known in pre-dynastic Egypt and passed to Crete during the second ... More

glass, Roman  

H.E.M. Cool

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Glass came of age during the Roman period. Within the ancient world it had been used from the mid-second millennium bce onwards, but only for jewellery and luxury items like small perfume ... More

gromatici  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman land-surveyors. They were more commonly called mensores or agrimensores, gromatici being a late term derived from the groma, which was the most important of the surveyor's instruments, used to ... More

Hagesander, Athenodorus, and Polydorus, Rhodian sculptors, active c. 40–20 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Pliny, HN 36. 37 mentions them as the authors of the *Laocoön, found in Rome in 1506 and immensely influential thereafter. In 1959 more groups signed by them were discovered at *Spelunca. ... More

harbours  

Philip de Souza

The earliest man-made harbour facilities in the Mediterranean region were the riverside quays of Mesopotamia and Egypt, for which records go back to at least the second millennium bce. Maritime ... More

heating  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Heating for cooking and warmth was primarily supplied in the classical world by charcoal stoves: hence the importance of charcoal-burning. The stoves took the form of chafing-dishes, gridirons, or ... More

Herculaneum  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman municipium on a spur of Vesuvius commanding the coast-road, 8 km. (5 mi.) south-east of Naples (Strabo 5. 4. 8; see neapolis). An independent member of the Samnite league centred on Nuceria in ... More

Herdonia  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Herdonia (mod. Ordona), *Messapian city, 25 km. (15½ mi.) south of Foggia. It was powerful in the 4th cent. bce, becoming a Roman ally during the Second Samnite War. In 214, it seceded to *Hannibal, ... More

Hildesheim treasure  

Frederick Norman Pryce

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The largest hoard of Roman silver *plate from outside the empire's frontiers; found in 1868 at Hildesheim in south Hanover and now in Berlin; assigned to the Augustan age and possibly booty from a ... More

Hippo Regius  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hippo Regius (near mod. Annaba, Algeria), a harbour town probably of Carthaginian origin. Its first historical mention is in 310/9bce when Agathocles of Syracuse took two towns of that ... More

Hispalis  

Simon J. Keay

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hispalis (mod. Sevilla), on the lower Baetis (Guadalquívir), was a native settlement founded in the 8th cent. bce. First mentioned in *Caesar's Civil War (see bellum civile), it was a ... More

horse- and chariot-races  

John Kinloch Anderson

In the funeral games for *Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event (Hom.Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, ... More

houses, Italian  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The social structures which underlay the Greek house, a *household unit (in Greek, oikos), which was capable of representing both a citizen lot in the space of the town, and the symbolic abode of the ... More

hunting  

John Kinloch Anderson

Epic heroes (see homer) hunt to fill their bellies or to rid the land of dangerous beasts (Hom. Od. 9. 154–48, 10. 157–63; Il. 9. 533–49). The boar is the most formidable antagonist; venison is ... More

hypocaust  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hypocaust (ὑπόκαυστον;hypocaustum), a raised floor heated from below by a furnace (ὑπόκαυσις; praefurnium). Elementary types are found in some Hellenistic baths (Gortys in *Arcadia; *Gela in Sicily) ... More

Iguvium  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Modern Gubbio in Umbria (see umbrians). First settled in the bronze age, it was an important iron age centre, which minted its own coins. The *tabulae Iguvinae were found here in 1444. ... More

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