M. Stephen Spurr
Frederick Norman Pryce, David Edward Eichholz, and Michael Vickers
Garrett G. Fagan
Gladiators were armed combatants who performed in the arena during Roman games called munera. They could be slaves, freeborn, or freedmen (ex-slaves). Slave gladiators were usually trained professionals based in a training school (ludus) run by a manager (lanista). Freeborn or freed gladiators were volunteers who fought under contract to a manager (such fighters were termed auctorati). There were different styles of armaments, carefully considered to pitch advantage against disadvantage. Thus the net-man (retiarius) was largely unprotected but carried a net and a trident with a long reach, whereas his opponent (secutor) carried a short sword but was more heavily armored and had a large shield. Evidence from gladiatorial graveyards and gravestones confirms the violent, often lethal nature of the contests, though a win could be achieved without a kill and the fighters clearly took pride in their skills and status with their peers and their fans. Despite their popularity, gladiators were officially regarded as infames (people of bad reputation) and ranked alongside or below actors, prostitutes, pimps, and bankrupts as social and moral outcasts. Roman sources date the first gladiatorial performances in the city to 264
A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater
Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers
Glass came of age during the Roman period. Within the ancient world it had been used from the mid-second millennium
Vessels, windows and other items spread widely throughout the empire and beyond, and to all levels of society. Over the next 400 years, how the material was used changed with time and place as the various regional industries responded to the needs and preferences of their communities.
This was a major high-temperature industry which would have made considerable demands on resources such as fuel, but there are still many things that are unknown about it. Where, for example, was the glass itself made? Waste from secondary workshops producing vessels is regularly encountered, but evidence for the primary production is extremely rare. This has led to considerable debate, with competing models being proposed. Glass is not a material where scientific techniques such as those used to provenance pottery have proved very helpful. The composition of Roman glass is extremely uniform throughout the empire, and again there has been much debate about why this might be. Of late, some useful advances have started to be made in approaching these questions, and this may eventually disentangle what was going on.
The study of Roman glass provides a unique window into the past. Through it the impact of new technologies and materials can be seen, as well as the choices people made about what was useful in their lives—all against the background of some of the most beautiful and skilful vessels ever made.
Andrew F. Stewart
Pliny, HN 36. 37 mentions them as the authors of the *Laocoön, found in Rome in 1506 and immensely influential thereafter. In 1959 more groups signed by them were discovered at *Spelunca. The groups all probably feature Odysseus: dragging Ajax's body, trying to steal the *Palladium, fighting *Scylla (1), and blinding Polyphemus. Other replicas show that the trio were essentially high-class copyists, adapting Hellenistic baroque compositions for Roman patrons. Recent re-examination of the Laocoön has shown that he may have been blind and wore a laurel wreath in his hair, so the group cannot have been based on the story in *Virgil's Aeneid, where Laocoön is a priest of Poseidon.
Philip de Souza
H. Kathryn Lomas
Frederick Norman Pryce
Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson
Hippo Regius (near mod. Annaba, Algeria), a harbour town probably of Carthaginian origin. Its first historical mention is in 310/9
Simon J. Keay
Hispalis (mod. Sevilla), on the lower Baetis (Guadalquívir), was a native settlement founded in the 8th cent.
John Kinloch Anderson
John Kinloch Anderson
Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter
Modern Gubbio in Umbria (see