You are looking at 201-220 of 6,487 articles
M. Stephen Spurr
Roman agricultural implements comprised slaves (see
M. Stephen Spurr
Michael H. Jameson
Dominic W. Rathbone
By modern standards Roman agriculture was technically simple, average yields were low, transport was difficult and costly, and storage was inefficient. This limited urbanization (and hence ‘industrialization’) obliged the bulk of the population to live and work on the land. Nevertheless, in the late republic and earlier Principate agriculture and urbanization (see
John Frederick Drinkwater
Agri Decumates, a territory comprising the Black Forest, the basin of the Neckar, and the Swabian Alp, annexed by the Flavian emperors to shorten communications between the Rhine and the Danube, and attached to Upper Germany. It may earlier have been settled by the landless poor of Gaul. Though the imperial authorities' prime concern was the *limes, they took pains to establish several artificial civilian communities on the Gallic model, e.g. the civitas Ulpia Sueborum, administered from Ladenburg. The meaning of ‘Agri Decumates’ has been much disputed; today it is generally translated as ‘Ten Cantons’. The area was lost c.
Dates unknown, but later than *Aenesidemus. Diogenes Laertius (9. 88) ascribes to him a set of five modes (τρόποι) of argument introduced to supplement or replace the older Modes of Aenesidemus, and frequently used by *Sextus Empiricus.
Agroecius, bishop of Sens (c. 470
P. J. Rhodes
J. David Hawkins
Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman
‘Wise Lord’ or ‘Lord Wisdom’, Iranian supreme deity invoked as wise, benevolent god, creator and upholder of Aṣ̌a (truth, righteousness) in the Avesta (Yasna 31.8). In *Achaemenid inscriptions, which rarely mention other gods, he is creator of heaven and earth and protector of kings. By contrast, he occurs among many other gods in the administrative *Persepolis Fortification texts, and received smaller amounts in offerings than the originally Elamite god Humban. Greeks equated him with *Zeus (Hdt. 1. 189). Gk. Ὡρομάζης is first attested in the 4th cent.
Herbert Jennings Rose and Jenny March
Susan Mary Sherwin-White
Percy Neville Ure and Simon Hornblower
Herbert Jennings Rose
Herbert Jennings Rose and J. Linderski
Aius locutius (or loquens), the divine voice, ‘sayer and speaker’, that warned of the coming of the Gauls shortly before the battle of the *Allia. The warning was not heeded. As expiation, a precinct (*templum) and *altar (ara) were established near Vesta's shrine, on the via Nova, where the voice was heard.
Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey
Al-Mina, a port at the mouth of the river *Orontes in Turkey, excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley in 1936–7. It was established as a trading-post (*emporion) by 800