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agricultural implements, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The *technology of Greek *agriculture was simple, and apparently underwent little development. Breaking up the ground, which was fundamental to sowing, weed-control, and preservation of moisture, was ... More

agricultural implements, Roman  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Roman agricultural implements comprised slaves (see slavery), animals, and tools (Varro, Rust. 1. 17. 1). Only the third category is reviewed here. The essential similarity between the ... More

agricultural writers  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agricultural manuals, written by practising landowners, flourished at Rome from M. *Porcius Cato (1) (c.160 bce) to *Palladius (c.Mid 5th cent. ce), enjoying higher status than other technical ... More

agriculture, Greek  

Michael H. Jameson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The agriculture of Greece in the historical period shared the basic cultigens and techniques of most of the other contemporary civilizations of the Mediterranean. Life was sustained by barley and ... More

agriculture, Roman  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
By modern standards Roman agriculture was technically simple, average yields were low, transport was difficult and costly, and storage was inefficient. This limited urbanization (and hence ... More

Agri Decumates  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agri Decumates, a territory comprising the Black Forest, the basin of the Neckar, and the Swabian Alp, annexed by the Flavian emperors to shorten communications between the Rhine and the ... More

Agrippa, Pyrrhonist Sceptic philosopher  

Gisela Striker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Dates unknown, but later than *Aenesidemus. Diogenes Laertius (9. 88) ascribes to him a set of five modes (τρόποι) of argument introduced to supplement or replace the older Modes of ... More

Agroecius  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Agroecius, bishop of Sens (c. 470ce) and associate of *Sidonius Apollinaris, wrote a treatise on spelling, De orthographia (ed. Keil, Gramm. Lat. 7. 113–25), dedicated to Eucherius of ... More

Agyrrhius, Athenian politician, fl. c. 405–373 BCE  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Agyrrhius (fl. c. 405–373 BCE). Athenian politician, introduced payment of one obol for attending the assembly (see ekklesia), and later increased it from two obols to three; sometimes, but probably ... More

Ahhiyawa  

J. David Hawkins

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Country attested in the *Hattuša archives (alternative and older spelling, Ahhiya) as a foreign land, often associated with Arzawa, i.e. western Anatolia. References mention kings, persons, ships, ... More

Ahura Mazdā  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Near East
‘Wise Lord’ or ‘Lord Wisdom’, Iranian supreme deity invoked as wise, benevolent god, creator and upholder of Aṣ̌a (truth, righteousness) in the Avesta (Yasna 31.8). In *Achaemenid ... More

Aias  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Jenny March

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aias (Αἴας, Lat. Aiax)(1) Son of *Telamon (1), king of *Salamis (1), hence Aias Telamonius, and also known as the Great(er) Ajax. He brought twelve ships from Salamis to Troy (Il. 2.557). In the ... More

Ai Khanoum  

Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Ai Khanoum, Greek Hellenistic city excavated (1965–78) by the French archaeological delegation in Afghanistan, is situated in the eastern part of *Bactria, at the junction of the river *Oxus (mod. ... More

Aion  

Robert Parker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Was for late antiquity the personification and god of indefinitely extending time. In early Greek αἰών means ‘life’ (often in the sense of ‘vital force’), ‘whole lifetime’, ‘generation’. It was ... More

aisymnētēs  

Percy Neville Ure and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Aisymnētēs, according to *Aristotle (Pol. 1285a), a supreme ruler appointed by some early city-states in times of internal crisis, for life, for a prescribed period, or till the completion of the ... More

Aither  

Herbert Jennings Rose

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aither (Αἰθήρ), personification of the purer upper stratum of air (approximately the stratosphere), next to or identical with the sky; son of Erebus and Night (see nyx) (Hes., Theog. 124–5); of ... More

aius locutius  

Herbert Jennings Rose and J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Aius locutius (or loquens), the divine voice, ‘sayer and speaker’, that warned of the coming of the Gauls shortly before the battle of the *Allia. The warning was not heeded. As ... More

Akkadian  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as *Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and southern dialects as Assyrian and ... More

Al-Mina  

Jean-François Salles and J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Al-Mina, a port at the mouth of the river *Orontes in Turkey, excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley in 1936–7. It was established as a trading-post (*emporion) by 800 bce and visited by ... More

Alabanda  

William Moir Calder and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alabanda, a city in northern *Caria, on the Marsyas, a tributary of the *Maeander, at the point where the road from *Tralles branches westward to *Halicarnassus and south to the coast opposite ... More

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