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Pythagoras (2), Greek sculptor  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Pythagoras (2), Greek sculptor, active c.490–450bce. A Samian (see samos) who migrated to *Rhegium in Italy, probably after the *Ionian Revolt collapsed in 494. Working exclusively in ... More

Pythius  

H. W. Richmond, Richard Ernest Wycherley, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pythius of *Priene (4th cent. bce), architect. He designed the *Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the temple of Athena Polias at Priene, both in the Ionic order. He held the opinion that architects ... More

quarries  

Hazel Dodge

Stone was an important material in both the Greek and Roman periods, not only for building, but also for decoration, sculpture, and vases. Whatever the stone, its geology defines the quarrying ... More

quinquereme  

Philip de Souza

Quinquereme (Greek πεντήρης, Latin quinqueremis), was a warship rowed by oarsmen arranged in groups of five, perhaps with three banks of oars, one above the other, the top two each pulled by a pair ... More

records and record-keeping, attitudes to  

Rosalind Thomas

Greeks and Romans kept records on stone or bronze, lead, wooden tablets (waxed or whitened), papyrus (see books, greek and roman), *ostraca, even precious metals. The different materials often bear ... More

retrospective styles  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Retrospective styles in sculpture. At various times, each of the three main Greek sculptural styles, the Archaic, the Classical, and the Hellenistic Baroque, was revived by both Greeks and Romans, ... More

'Riace warriors'  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Riace warriors’, two masterpieces of Greek bronze-casting, from (it seems) an ancient *shipwreck; found off the toe of Italy in 1972. Standing nudes, 1.97–8 m. high, they originally held weapons; on ... More

roads  

Nicholas Purcell

Ancient road-theory divides into two categories: the art of enhancing communications through built or dug works; and the planning and maintaining of large-scale communications networks ... More

Rogozen  

Simon Hornblower

Rogozen, Bulgarian site in ancient *Thrace (see also religion, thracian), at which important finds of beautiful 4th-cent. bce silver and silver-gilt vessels were made in 1986. Some carry ... More

sanctuaries, Greek  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Sanctuaries in the Greek world (see also temenos) were areas set aside for religious purposes and separate from the normal secular world. The boundary (peribolos) might be an actual wall, but more ... More

sanitation, Greek  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Developed arrangements in Greek towns for sanitation are a relatively late phenomenon, coming in with the planned cities in the 4th cent. bce. Scenes of the *symposium on Greek vases depict the use ... More

Scopas, Parian sculptor and architect, active c. 370–330 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Scopas, Parian sculptor and architect, active c. 370–330 bce. Specializing in younger divinities, he was reckoned among the three principal Greek ‘sculptors of gods’ (ἀγαλματοποιοί) and ‘sculptors of ... More

sculpture, Greek  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Of Dark-Age sculpture, only small bronzes and terracottas survive; unpretentious at first, by the 8th cent. they tend to favour the rigorously analytical forms of contemporary ... More

Seven Wonders of the ancient world  

Kai Brodersen

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Canon of seven ‘sights’ (θεάματα) of art and architecture. First attested in the 2nd cent. bce in the Laterculi Alexandrini (PBerol. 13044v, col. 8–9) and in *Antipater (3) of Sidon (Anth. Pal. 9. ... More

sexual representation, visual  

John R. Clarke

This article treats visual representations of sex between human beings, hypersexual humans and demigods, and phalli in terms of their meanings for ancient Greeks and Romans and their ... More

siegecraft, Greek  

John F. Lazenby

The Greek national epics focused on the siege of a city, but it took ten years to capture *Troy, even if, in the end, the ‘wooden horse’ was some kind of sophisticated siege device. The inability to ... More

Silanion, Athenian sculptor  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Silanion, Athenian sculptor, active c. 360–320 bce. He specialized in heroes and portraits in bronze, and was the first portraitist to write on proportion. His *Plato (1) and *Corinna have been ... More

Sindus  

Simon Hornblower

Archaeologically important (late Archaic and Classical) cemetery site near Thessaloniki (ancient *Thessalonica) in north Greece. The settlement was basically Thracian (see Thrace) but ... More

skytalē  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A word found in Spartan contexts, apparently to describe a message written on leather wrapped round a stick. The view that it was used for secret messages is found in late writers (Plut.Lys. 19; ... More

slingers  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The sling is possibly depicted on the silver ‘Siege Rhyton’ from Shaft Grave IV at *Mycenae, and sling-bullets were found at *Knossos; the earliest literary reference may be in the Iliad (13. 716). ... More

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