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Theodosius (4), of Bithynia, astronomer and mathematician  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theodosius (4) of Bithynia, astronomer and mathematician (fl. c.100 bce), wrote three treatises on elementary ‘spherics’: Σφαιρικά, in three books, dealing with great and small circles on the sphere; ... More

Theon (4), of Alexandria, mathematical commentator  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theon of *Alexandria (1) (fl. 364 ce), mathematical commentator. Extant works are (1) a commentary on *Ptolemy (4)'s Almagest (the sections on bk. 11 and parts of other books are lost); ... More

Thessalus (1), of Cos, Greek author, late 5th cent. BCE  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Thessalus of *Cos (fl. late 5th cent. bce), according to some a ‘son of Hippocrates’ (see hippocrates(2)). Next to nothing is known of him, yet attempts were made in later antiquity by *Galen and ... More

Thessalus (2), physician, 1st cent. CE  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A doctor from *Tralles. He worked in Rome and was probably dead by ce 79. None of his writings survive, but he is often mentioned by other medical writers. *Galen (10. 7 Kühn) claims that he wrote to ... More

time-reckoning  

A. T. Grafton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ancient culture knew a range of expedients for dividing the twenty-four hours of the day, for marking the succession of days in the month or year, and for dating important historical events. *Hesiod ... More

Timocharis  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Timocharis, astronomer at *Alexandria (1), made observations between 295 and 272 bce reported by *Ptolemy(4). These record positions of the moon and Venus with respect to fixed stars. He also ... More

transport, wheeled  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The wheel played a prominent role in traction in the ancient Mediterranean lands (contrast its absence in pre-Columbian societies of the Americas). It is more difficult to gauge its economic and ... More

trigonometry  

Nathan Camillo Sidoli

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The development of trigonometry as a branch of mathematics was a combined effort of mathematical scholars working in a number of different languages and cultures, over many centuries. The ... More

Vesuvius  

Edward Togo Salmon and Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vesuvius, the famous volcano on the bay of Naples, rises isolated out of the surrounding plain of *Campania. Its base is some 48 km. (30 mi.) in circumference, its central cone over 1,216 m. (4,000 ... More

veterinary medicine  

Liliane Bodson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Veterinary medicine deals with treatments, cures, and all the other means by which the health of livestock may be preserved or restored. It is rooted in the early management of stock breeding, when ... More

Vettius Valens  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vettius Valens, Greek astrologer from *Antioch(1), wrote (between 152 ce and 162) the Anthologies, an extant nine-book treatise on *astrology, preserving the only major collection of Greek ... More

Vitruvius (Pol(l)io)  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vitruvius (Pol(l)io) (See mamurra), a Roman architect and military engineer, in which capacity he served *Caesar. He built a basilica at *Fanum Fortunae; but his fame rests chiefly on a treatise, De ... More

vivisection  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Squeamishness about the dissection (let alone vivisection) of animals is a mark of much ancient medicine and zoology, and there is no firm evidence for vivisection in those Hippocratic works (see ... More

wind  

Liba Taub

In classical times, wind was in some cases understood to be a god, or as being under the influence of a god; it was understood by some to be a phenomenon liable to prediction and/or explanation as a ... More

Xenocrates (2), of Aphrodisias, physician  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Physician of the time of *Nero and the Flavians (54–96 ce).Περὶ τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τῶν ζῴων ὠφελείας (‘On the uses of human beings and animals’), full of superstitious means of treatment, ... More

Zeno (7), Herophilean physician, 2nd cent. BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zeno (7) (2nd cent. bce), a physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus, participated in the Herophilean traditions of innovative pulse theory, *pharmacology, and Hippocratic lexicography (see ... More

Zenodorus, mathematician, fl. 200 BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016

Zenodorus, mathematician (fl. 200 bce), wrote Περὶ ἰσοπεριμέτρων σχημάτων (On figures of equal boundary), parts of which are preserved by *Theon(4) and *Pappus.

Zeuxis (2), 'the Empiricist', Greek physician, 2nd cent. BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zeuxis (2), a physician of the Empiricist school (see medicine, § 5.3; probably 2nd cent. bce), wrote commentaries on all the ‘authentic’ works of *Hippocrates (2) (according to *Galen), often taking ... More

Zeuxis (3), Philalethes ('Truth-lover'), Greek physician  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Philalethes (the ‘Truth-lover’), physician, founder of the Asian branch of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. A contemporary of Strabo (Geography 12. 8. 20, 580c), he established the ‘school’ ... More

Zopyrus  

Online publication date:
Mar 2016

Zopyrus, writer on *physiognomy, known from his judgement on Socrates' appearance.

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