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religion, Italic  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In a strict sense this concept refers to the religions of various tribes using the Italic group of Indo-European languages—Umbrians, Sabello-Oscans (Sabines, Samnites, and a number of others such as ... More

religion, Roman  

Simon Price

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The historiography of Roman religion might be said to begin with *Varro'sHuman and Divine Antiquities (47 bce), of which the second half, 16 books on Divine Antiquities, codified for the ... More

religion, Roman, terms relating to  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Latin religio was likened by the ancients to relegere, ‘to go over again in thought’ (Cic. Nat. D. 2. 72) or to religare, ‘to bind’ (Lucr. 1. 931; Livy 5. 23. 10), and designates religious ... More

religions, ancient: cognitive anthropology of  

Luther H. Martin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The genealogy of cognitive anthropology includes, among others, N. Chomsky's argument that cultural input underdetermines mental output; C. Lévi-Strauss’ analysis of ethnographic data in terms of ... More

rex nemorensis  

Mary Beard

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Rex nemorensis, the ‘king of the grove’, i.e. *Diana's grove at Nemi near *Aricia, in Latium. This priest was unique among religious officials of the Roman world, in being an escaped slave who ... More

rex sacrorum  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
On the expulsion of the kings from Rome (see rex; tarquinius superbus, l.) their sacral functions were partially assumed by a priest called rex sacrorum ‘the king for sacred rites’ (and ... More

Robigus  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Robigus, Roman spirit of wheat rust. His festival (Robigalia) was on 25 April (Ov. Fast. 4. 901 ff. with Bömer's notes), at the fifth milestone of the via Claudia; the flamen Quirinalis (see ... More

Romulus and Remus  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Mythical founders of Rome. In its normal form (Livy 1. 3. 10 ff.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1. 76. 1 ff.; Plut. Rom. 3 ff.; more in Bremmer in Roman Myth and Mythography (1987), 25 ff., which article is ... More

Rosalia  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Romans doted on roses and regularly used them on festal occasions, at banquets both official (arval brothers: ILS 5039) and private (e.g. Mart. 9. 93. 5); cf. Frazer on Ov. Fast. 2. 539 and Bömer ... More

ruler-cult, Roman  

Mason Hammond and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The offering of divine honours to humans was not indigenous to Italy. The Romans had long sacrificed to the ghosts of the dead (*manes) and conceived of a semi-independent spirit (*genius) attached ... More

Rumina  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
An obscure Roman goddess whose significance depends on her name's etymology. Wissowa, RK 242, following Varro, Rust. 2. 11. 5, connects her with ruma (breast) and hence suckling. This is ... More

sacrifice, Roman  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Roman sacrificial practices were not functionally different from Greek, although there are no sources for them earlier than the 2nd cent. bce, and the modalités of Roman sacrifice were complex, since ... More

saeculum  

Susan Bilynskyj Dunning

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In Roman conceptions of time, the saeculum became the longest fixed interval, calculated as a period of 100 or 110 years (as opposed to, e.g., a lustrum of only five years; cf. “census”). ... More

Salii, 'to dance'  

Cyril Bailey and John North

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Salii (from salire ‘to dance’), an ancient ritual sodalitas (see sodales) found in many towns of central Italy, usually in association with the war-god. Outside Rome, they are heard of at *Lavinium, ... More

Salus  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Salus, a deified ‘virtue’, the safety and welfare of the state (akin to, and perhaps influenced by, the Greek *Soteria), with a temple on the Quirinal vowed in the Samnite War in 311 and dedicated in ... More

Sarapis  

Richard Gordon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Sarapis (in Latin, Serapis), the Hellenized (Greek) form of Egypt. wsi᾿r ḥp, *Osiris-*Apis (Osorapis, Oser-), the hypostasis of Osiris and of Apis-bulls entombed at Saqqara (Plut. De Is. et Os. 29, ... More

Saturnus, Saturnalia  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Saturnus is one of the most puzzling gods in Roman cult. His festival (below) was part of the ‘Calendar of Numa’ (see pompilius, numa), and its position, 17 December, midway between Consualia and ... More

Satyrus (2), 'Zeta', pupil of Aristarchus (2), 2nd cent. BCE  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Nicknamed Zeta, pupil of *Aristarchus (2), was perhaps the author of a collection of ancient myths (FGrH 20). On the (?) different writers called Satyrus (a hopeless muddle) see Fraser, ... More

Secular Games  

Susan Bilynskyj Dunning

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Ludi Saeculares were a religious performance held at Rome from the Republic to late Empire that came to be connected with the arrival of a new age or saeculum. The earliest celebrations included ... More

Securitas  

Harold Mattingly and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Securitas, often with epithets like ‘publica’, ‘Augusta’ or ‘temporum’ (of the times), associated with the emperor or the state as a ‘virtue’ or ‘desirable state’. Securitas was invoked when some ... More

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