William David Ross and Robert Sharples
Peripatetic, not earlier than
Gwilym Ellis Lane Owen and Simon Hornblower
William David Ross and Antony Spawforth
Staseas of Naples, the first *Peripatetic philosopher known to have settled in Rome. M. *Pupius Piso Frugi became his pupil c.92
A Stoic writer (See
Sthenidas of *Locri Epizephyrii, nominal author of a Neopythagorean work On Kingship (variously dated between the 3rd cent.
Third and perhaps last head of the *Megarian school. He was a familiar and popular figure in Athens. His numerous pupils included *Zeno (2) the founder of Stoicism, *Menedemus (1) the founder of the *Eretrian school, and the orator Alcimus. He is reported to have written at least twenty dialogues.
His teaching was largely ethical—Socratic in inspiration, with some Cynic colouring (see
Stoicism, philosophical movement, founded by *Zeno (2) of Citium, who came to Athens in 313
David John Furley
Straton (1) of *Lampsacus, philosopher, head of the *Peripatetic school after *Theophrastus until his death (c.287–269
He rejected Aristotle's theory of place and contradicted him in asserting the existence of void in the cosmos. This has been taken as a concession to the atomists (see
M. T. Griffin
The Latin word suicidium, from which the English derives, is not classical Latin: pronouns were not used as prefixes in compounds, and the word could only have meant ‘the killing of a pig’. The first uses of suicidium found so far are by Gauthier de Saint-Victor in 1177/8 and, in English, by Sir Thomas Browne in Religio Medici published in 1643, who probably invented it afresh. The nearest to a technical term in antiquity was mors voluntaria (voluntary death) and the Greek equivalent, verbal phrases being used for the most part. Some ancient terminology reveals that suicide was often subsumed in categories regarded as more fundamental: thus a βιαιοθάνατος (Latin biothanatos) was any victim of premature, violent death, and an αὐτόχειρ was someone who kills his kin.
The limited and unsystematic nature of our evidence for Greek and Roman suicide does not allow for quantitative studies. Reliant as we are for the most part on literary accounts (some fictional, even mythical, all artistically shaped), we can only draw conclusions about attitudes and values. If a sociological approach is difficult, so is a psychiatric one, for in antiquity suicide was described on the assumption that it was a conscious intentional act: mental imbalance, though occasionally given as a cause of suicide, was not the central case it has become in the modern world. The ancients, including hard-headed Roman jurists who needed to distinguish suicides motivated by fear of condemnation from others that brought exemption from confiscation, felt confident that they could distinguish individual motives. They were not troubled by notions of unconscious motivation. This fact, in combination with the lack of reversible methods, may explain why the suicide attempts reported in the ancient sources are relatively few when compared with the modern ratio of attempted to accomplished suicides.
William David Ross
Charles H. Kahn
William David Ross
Theages, pupil of *Socrates(1). *Plato(1) refers in the Republic (496b) to ‘the bridle of Theages’, the bad health which kept him out of politics and saved him for philosophy. On the basis of this reference an imitator of Plato wrote a Theages dealing with the relation between philosophy and politics, and this is included in the corpus of Plato's works.