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sellisternium  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A religious banquet at which the goddesses sat on chairs (sellae; Val. Max. 2. 1. 2: *Juno and *Minerva at the epulum Iovis, ‘the banquet for *Jupiter’), whereas at the *lectisternium they reclined ... More

Semo Sancus Dius Fidius  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Semo Sancus Dius Fidius (for the full name see Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4. 58. 4; CIL 6. 30994), a deity of puzzling origin, nature, and name, said to be Sabine, see sabini (e.g. Prop. 4. 9. 74; he is ... More

septemviri epulones  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John North

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Septemviri epulones, the latest addition to the four major colleges of Roman *priests. They were instituted by law in 196 bce (Livy 33. 42) and were then three in number (tresviri), all apparently ... More

Sibyl  

Arthur Stanley Pease and David Potter

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The word Sibylla, of uncertain etymology, appears first in Heraclitus (DK 22 B 92) and was used as a proper name by the 5th cent. bce (e.g. Ar.Pax 1095, 1116). Specific oracles relating to events in ... More

Sigillaria  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Sigillaria, the fair on the last of the seven days of the Saturnalia (see saturnus), when pottery figurines (sigilla) were given as gifts; as well as these, other trifling wares were sold ... More

Silenus  

Frank William Walbank and Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Silenus, probably of Caleacte in Sicily, wrote a history of Sicily. With *Sosylus, he accompanied Hannibal's expedition as an official historian and wrote a history of it, which *Coelius Antipater ... More

Silvanus  

James Rives

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Roman god of the countryside. Apparently of ancient origin, he is rarely attested before the Augustan period, but during the empire was one of the most popular deities in the western and Danubian ... More

Silvius  

Cyril Bailey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Silvius, son of *Aeneas and Lavinia, father of Silvius Aeneas and ancestor of the Alban royal house of Silvii (Verg.Aen. 6. 760–7; Livy 1. 3). A legend due to the name, but unknown to ... More

sin  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The modern term has no equivalent in either Greek or Latin. The Christian concept of sin accommodates two basic and coherent senses: offence against moral codes, and action against the laws or the ... More

sodales  

John North

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Either ‘companions, mates’, or else ‘members of a single college or fraternity’. Examples of the latter sense are the secondary religious groups of Rome: these include the *fetiales, who made ... More

Sol  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The name of the Sun is given to two utterly different deities in Rome. The older is Sol Indiges, of whom we know that he had a sacrifice on 9 August (Augustan calendars for that date: Soli Indigiti ... More

Soracte  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The isolated mountain 691 m. (2,267 ft.) high to the north of Rome, from which it is sometimes visible. Celebrated by *Horace (Odes 1. 9), there were priests here called Hirpi, resembling ... More

Soter  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Soter, fem. Soteira, a title of several deities (e.g. *Zeus Soter, *Artemis Soteira), expressing their power to save people from danger. It has no Latin equivalent (Cic.Verr. 2. 2. 154), except ... More

Spes  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Spes, the personification of hope (with particular reference to the safety of the younger generation) worshipped at Rome by the 5th cent. bce (Livy 2. 51. 2) and given a temple in the forum ... More

standards, cult of  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Every permanent station of a Roman military unit, especially legionary, and every camp regularly constructed contained a chapel, which, at least in imperial times (Veg. Mil. 2. 6), was under the ... More

statues, cult of  

C. Robert Phillips and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
There is no unequivocal evidence for the worship of statues in prehistory. Neolithic marble figurines and figures from the *Cyclades, with their stylized and exaggerated female attributes, are ... More

strenae  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Strenae, originally the luck-bringing (mostly laurel) twigs (from the grove of the goddess Strenia), also figs, honey-cakes, and dates; later any gifts, lamps, coins, and even gold, ... More

Summanus  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Summanus, god who sends nocturnal thunderbolts (FestusGloss. Lat. 334). Latte (RR 208) derives the cult from an omen during the war with *Pyrrhus when a temple was founded (?276 bce), located ‘at the ... More

suovetaurilia  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Suovetaurilia (suovi-), a purificatory sacrifice at the conclusion of lustratio of three (generic) victims: pig, sheep, bull (sus, ovis, taurus). Suovetaurilia lactentia (‘suckling’) ... More

superstitio  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Superstitio, though perhaps originally implying a positive attitude, had become pejorative by the end of the 1st cent. bce. Superstition meant a free citizen's forgetting his dignity by throwing ... More

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