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temple  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Greek temple was the house of the god, whose image it contained, usually placed so that at the annual festival it could watch through the open door the burning of the sacrifice at the altar which ... More

Temples of Sant’Omobono  

Nicola Terrenato

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Fieldwork around the church of Sant’Omobono in the Forum Boarium has produced some of the most remarkable discoveries illustrating the early phases of the city of Rome. Archaeological ... More

templum Pacis  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Templum Pacis, later called forum Pacis or Vespasiani, was the precinct of the temple of Peace at Rome, dedicated by *Vespasian in 75 ce. The area (145×100 m.) was surrounded by marble ... More

terramara  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Terramara derives from the Emilian dialect expression (‘terra marna’) for the fertile black soil that first brought a distinctive type of settlement site to the notice of 19th-cent. ... More

tessera  

Harold Mattingly and Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tessera, a die or gaming piece; also a ticket or token, used in the Roman world for a great variety of purposes. Surviving examples include stamped, mostly round, pieces of lead, bronze, or ... More

theatres, Greek and Roman, structure  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Greek theatre consisted essentially of the orchestra, the flat dancing-place for the choral song and dance out of which grew tragedy and comedy; and the auditorium (the theatron proper, Latin ... More

theatre staging, Roman  

Peter G. M. Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The staging of the plays of *Plautus and *Terence has to be worked out almost entirely from the texts themselves; the theatres in which they were performed have not survived. (The first Roman theatre ... More

toga  

Hero Granger-Taylor

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The toga was the principal garment of the free-born Roman male. It was also worn by *Etruscan men and originally also by women. It was usually made of undyed light wool, but for mourning was of dark ... More

tourism  

Antony Spawforth

Well-known Greek tourists include *Solon, said (Hdt. 1. 30) to have visited Egypt and Lydia ‘for the sake of seeing’ (theōria), and *Herodotus (1) himself. Sea-borne *trade and sightseeing were ... More

toys  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Specimens from children's tombs, and representations on Greek pottery vases provide our knowledge of ancient toys, which did not differ essentially from modern ones. For the infant there were ... More

Trajan's Column  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Honorific column dedicated in 113 ce as part of the *forum Traiani in Rome. It consists of a 28.9 m. (95 ft.)-tall column standing on a 6.2 m. (20 ft.)-high pedestal. An internal spiral staircase, ... More

transhumance  

Antony Spawforth

Transhumance, a form of semi-nomadism in which pastoralists move their flocks over long distances between summer and winter pastures. Well-attested in the Mediterranean more recently, it ... More

trireme  

Philip de Souza

The trireme (Gk. τριήρης, Lat. triremis) was the standard warship of the classical world for much of the time from the 5th cent. bce to the 4th cent. ce. A long rowing-ship, its principal ... More

triumphal arch  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Triumphal arch, the term generally used to denote the honorific arch (fornix, arcus; ἁψίς, πύλη), one of the most characteristically Roman of classical buildings. Though regularly erected to ... More

trophies  

Donald Emrys Strong

The act of dedicating on the field of battle a suit of enemy armour set upon a stake is a specifically Greek practice. Originally intended as a miraculous image of the theos tropaios who had brought ... More

Tullianum  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tullianum, the underground execution cell of the *prison at Rome, flanking the *Comitium, and traditionally associated with Servius *Tullius (Varro, Ling. 5. 151; Festus 356). The ... More

urbanism, late Roman  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The traditional picture of overall decline is being modified by excavations and surveys which show wide variations in place and time, and by partly semantic disputes: are we confronting the death of ... More

urbanism, Roman  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Romans, ‘the most city-proud people known’, in *Procopius' late description (Goth. 8. 22. 7), founded their city-policy and urban ideology principally on their own city. Already in the 6th cent. ... More

Utica  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Utica, by tradition the oldest Phoenician settlement on the north African coast, in Tunisia, 33 km. (21 mi.) north-east of *Tunis. The traditional foundation date of 1101 bce (Plin.HN 16. 216; Vell. ... More

Vatican  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Vatican, an extramural area of the city of Rome, on the right bank of the *Tiber around the mons Vaticanus. In the early empire the Vatican was the site of an imperial park (the horti ... More

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