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Tubilustrium  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tubilustrium, Roman festival on 23 March and 23 May, whose ‘trumpet purification’ readied the army for war (fasti Praenestini; FestusGloss. Lat.442). Calendars added Q(uando) R(ex) C(omitiavit) ... More

Turnus (1), Italian hero  

Stephen J. Harrison

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Turnus (1), Italian hero, in *Virgil son of Daunus and the *nymph Venilia and brother of the nymph Juturna; the Greek tradition calls him ‘Tyrrhenus’, suggesting an *Etruscan link (Dion. ... More

Vatican  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Vatican, an extramural area of the city of Rome, on the right bank of the *Tiber around the mons Vaticanus. In the early empire the Vatican was the site of an imperial park (the horti ... More

Ve(d)iovis  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ve(d)iovis, Roman god, a form of *Jupiter, with a festival on 21 May, and temples on the *Tiber island and between the two summits of the Capitoline hill (see capitol). Important remains of the ... More

Venus  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The debate over the original nature of this goddess, who does not belong to Rome's oldest pantheon but is attested fairly early at *Lavinium, has been partly resolved (Schilling 1954). It is now ... More

Vercellae  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vercellae (mod. Vercelli), originated as an *oppidum of the Celtic Libici, near the gold-mines of north-western Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul (cisalpine)). A garrison-town and a *municipium ... More

ver sacrum  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ver sacrum, ‘the sacred spring’, a ritual practised in Italy, particularly by the Sabellic (*Oscan) tribes; see sabelli. In times of distress all produce of the spring (or the whole year) ... More

Vertumnus  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vertumnus (Vortumnus), supposedly an *Etruscan god: so Varro, Ling. 5. 46 and Prop. 4. 2. 4, who says he came from *Volsinii; but nothing confirms this view (Radke, Götter 317 ff.; G. Dumézil, ARR ... More

Vesta, Vestals  

Richard Gordon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vesta was the Roman goddess of (the hearth-) fire, custos flammae (Ov. Fast. 6. 258, comm. F. Bömer), one of the twelve Di *Consentes. The cult is also known from *Pompeii and *Latium: it was ... More

via Sacra  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Via Sacra, the ‘sacred way’, street connecting the *forum Romanum with the *Velia, affording access to the *Palatine. According to *Varro and *Pompeius Festus, the stretch of road ... More

vicomagistri  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vicomagistri, officials of a *vicus, which was a miniature body politic, and was entitled to possess property, administer common funds, and appoint officials. These magistri or vicomagistri, who were ... More

victimarius  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John North

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Sacrificial slaughterer; see sacrifice, roman. The magistrate in charge of a sacrifice did not perform the act of killing himself; he performed symbolic acts and pronounced the prayers, ... More

Victoria  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Roman equivalent of *Nike. There is no evidence that she is anything more; mentions of an early cult of Victory must refer to Vacuna or Vica Pota (Dion. Hal.Ant. Rom. 1. 15. 1; Asc.Pis., p. 13. ... More

Vinalia  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman wine festivals on 23 April (Priora), 19 August (Rustica). The Priora probably offered *Jupiter new wine at the time of sale (Plin.HN 18. 287, fasti Praenestini); Ov.Fast. 4. 863 ff. ... More

Volcanus  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Volcanus (VolkanusVulcanus), an ancient Roman god of destructive, devouring *fire, in both the human environment and in nature: e.g. in volcanoes (see Strabo 5. 246 for his worship at the Solfatare ... More

Voltumna  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Voltumna, an Etruscan goddess, at whose shrine the Etruscan federal council met (Livy, 4. 23. 5; 25. 7; 61. 2; 5. 17. 6; 6. 2. 2; cf. CIL 11. 5265 and J. Gascou, Mélanges d'arch. 1967, for the ... More

votum  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A vow. Both Greeks and Romans habitually made promises to gods, in order to persuade them to grant a favour stipulated in advance. If the gods fulfilled their part, the vow-maker fell under the ... More

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