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C. Robert Phillips
Ambarvalia, Roman private and public field *lustration in May. The name appears only in Festus Gloss. Lat. 112, SHA Aurel. 20. 3; Strabo 5. 3. 2. Private rite: Cato, Agr. 141; Verg. Ecl. 5. 75, G. 1. 338 ff. with Serv. on 1. 341; Tib. 2. 1; P. Pöstgens, Tibulls Ambarvalgedicht (1940). The rustic calendars (menologia rustica) for May note: segetes lustrantur (‘crops are purified’). The public rites symbolically lustrated all fields and are sometimes connected with the pontifices (Strabo), sometimes with the arval brethren's May 29 worship of *Dea Dia (Festus): Wissowa, Religion und Kultus 562 and E. Norden, Aus altrömischen Priesterbüchern (1939), 161 ff.; contra: Latte, Römische Religionsgeschichte 65.. Other Italic communities had similar rites: J. Poultney, The Bronze Tablets of Iguvium (1954), 1 b 20–3.
D. W. R. Ridgway
Howard Hayes Scullard and John Frederick Drinkwater
Peter G. M. Brown
Produced plays by *Caecilius Statius and (the *didascaliae record) all of *Terence's.
Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond
Alan H. Griffiths
(i.e. pseudo-Ambrose), the author of the Commentary on Thirteen Pauline Letters (except Hebrews) handed down under the name of *Ambrose. Attempts at identifying the author have not yet yielded conclusive results. The commentary was written under Pope *Damasus (
C. Robert Phillips
Amburbium, *lustration for Rome, seldom so named (Serv. on Verg. Ecl. 3. 77; SHA Aurel. 20. 3), usually linked with the *Ambarvalia's lustration of the fields (Festus Gloss. Lat. 112; Servius; SHA). Since it appears in no *calendar it may have been a movable festival (L. Delatte, Ant. Class. 1937, 114–17) or, based on the infrequent references, all late, it may have been a rarely performed lustration (cf. Ogilvie on Livy 1. 44. 2, and JRS 1961, 39) which anachronistically received its name by analogy with Ambarvalia. H. Usener placed it (Weihnachtsfest, 2nd edn. (1911), 1. 314–28) on 2 February as ultimately Christianized into Candlemas, unpersuasively despite Wissowa, RK 142 n. 12. Lucan (1. 592–638) describes an amburbium—but clearly an extraordinary ceremony.
Ameipsias, Athenian comic poet, contemporary with *Aristophanes (1). His Connus (see
Amelius (or Amerius) Gentilianus (3rd cent.
Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter
Ameria (mod. Amelia), hill-town of southern *Umbria. Although very ancient (Plin. HN 3. 114), it is first mentioned by Cicero (Rosc. Amer. 15, 19, 20, 25), in whose day it was a prosperous *municipium. It remained such in imperial times. Its massive polygonal walls are still well preserved.
Howard Hayes Scullard and Andrew Lintott
R. J. A. Wilson
Ammaedara (mod. Haidra), a Roman city in western Tunisia on the Carthage–Theveste trunk road, 36 km. (22 mi.) north-east of the latter. The first fortress of the Legio III Augusta was established here in Augustan times on a virgin site close to the oued Haidra. The exact position of the fortress is unknown, but it is assumed to lie under the Byzantine fortress at the heart of the site; legionary tombstones from a necropolis to the east demonstrate the presence of the legion. When the fortress was moved to *Thevestec.