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Surenas  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Surenas or Sūrēn, name of one of the seven great Parthian families (see parthia). They ruled Seistan as vassals of the *Arsacids, and held certain hereditary rights and functions, ... More

Susa  

William Woodthorpe Tarn and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Susa, the ‘city of lilies’, was the capital of Elam, and afterwards the Achaemenid regional winter capital, where *Darius I built a palace with a large audience hall (*apadana) and a monumental ... More

Syene  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Syene (mod. Aswân), town in Upper Egypt on the east bank of the *Nile below the first cataract. A customs-post on the Nubian frontier, it had important banks under the Ptolemies and military ... More

Synnada  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Synnada (mod. Şuhut), was an assize centre (see conventus(2)) in the province of Asia (see asia, roman province) and one of the most important cities of *Phrygia. In the 160s bce it played ... More

Syrian deities  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Almost all the deities worshipped in Greek and Roman *Syria were Semitic, ancient near eastern in origin. Despite considerable regional differences, a few main types of cult can be ... More

Syria, pre-Roman  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
This region was a satrapy (‘Beyond the River’, i.e. the *Euphrates) of the Persian empire (see persia) until it was conquered by *Alexander (3) the Great in 332 bce. On his death (323) it was ... More

Syria, Roman  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
The Roman province comprised besides the cities, a few of which were free, the client kingdoms of *Commagene and *Arabia, the ethnarchy of the Jews (*Judaea), the tetrarchy of the Ituraeans ... More

Taprobane  

Ian C. Glover

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Taprobane (also Palaesimundu, Salice), ancient names for Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Mentioned by *Onesicritus, *Megasthenes, *Eratosthenes, *Hipparchus(3), and *Ptolemy(4), as a large island ... More

Taxiles  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Taxiles, eponymous ruler of the territory between the Indus and Jhelum dominated by the city of Taxila (Takshashila). He made overtures to *Alexander(3) the Great while the king was engaged in ... More

Teucer (3), of Cyzicus, Greek writer, c. mid-1st cent. BCE  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wrote several books about the contemporary near east, including coverage of Pompey's settlement in 63–62. His Περὶ χρυσοφόρου γῆς (‘On the Gold-Producing Land’) does not necessarily ... More

Thebes (2), capital of pharaonic Egypt  

Joseph Grafton Milne and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Thebes (2) (ancient Egyptian name Waset, modern Luxor), sometime capital of pharaonic *Egypt, visited by *Herodotus(1) (2.143), and still an important city at the Macedonian conquest, whereafter it ... More

Tigranocerta  

Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tigranocerta, city in *Armenia, in Arzanene; it was founded by *Tigranes (1) II (App. Mith.67) after 80 bce as a city in the Hellenistic style which he was building to be the centre of his new ... More

Tigris  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tigris, the more easterly of the two rivers of *Mesopotamia and, together with the *Euphrates, of decisive importance for the geological, cultural, and historical development of Mesopotamia. Rising ... More

Tiridates (1), apocryphal Parthian figure  

Eric William Gray and Barbara M. Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East

(RE 3), the supposed brother, partner in revolt, and successor in rule of Arsaces I, founder of the Parthian empire (see parthia), is apocryphal.

Tiridates (2), pretender to the Parthian throne, 2nd half of 1st cent. BCE  

Eric William Gray and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tiridates, a pretender to the Parthian throne (see parthia) in revolt against *Phraates (1) IV shortly before 31 bce and temporarily successful in dislodging him. On Phraates' recovery ... More

Tiridates (3), Parthian king, 36 CE  

Margaret Stephana Drower and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tiridates, grandson of *Phraates (1) IV, was sent by *Tiberius to contest the Parthian throne, with the military support of L. *Vitellius, governor of *Syria (Tac. Ann. 6. 32). Expelling *Artabanus ... More

Tiridates (4), Parthian king of Armenia, 54 CE  

Margaret Stephana Drower and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tiridates (4), brother of *Vologeses I of Parthia, who set him on the throne of *Armenia (54 ce). He fled before the Romans and was temporarily displaced by *Tigranes (4) V, but was reinstated by ... More

Tissaphernes  

C. J. Tuplin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tissaphernes, son of Hydarnes. Having suppressed Pissuthnes' revolt, he became *satrap of *Sardis (c.413 bce), receiving overall authority in western Anatolia. Instructed to collect tribute from the ... More

Tripolis  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, and Jean-François Salles

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tripolis, Phoenician city, a joint foundation of *Tyre, *Sidon, and *Aradus. Between 104 and 95 bce it obtained its freedom from Antiochus IX (see seleucids), but later fell under a ... More

Trogodytae  

Robert G. Morkot

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Trogodytae were a people of ‘*Ethiopia’, in particular the Eastern Desert of southern Egypt and north Sudan. In MSS of classical authors we frequently find a reading which, by inclusion of the letter ... More

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