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John F. Matthews
Alan H. Griffiths
John Francis Lockwood and Nigel Wilson
Ammonius (1), pupil and successor of *Aristarchus (2) (schol. Il. 10. 397; Suda, entry under the name), wrote besides a commentary on Homer (POxy. 2. 121), other works on the Homeric poems, e.g. a treatise on *Plato (1)'s borrowings from Homer ([Longinus], Subl. 13. 3), and essays in defence of Aristarchus' recension of the Homeric text (schol. Il. 10. 397); these formed a valuable source for *Didymus (1). For his commentary on Pindar (schol. Od. 1. 122 c) he used Aristarchus' work, but made independent additions (schol. Nem. 3. 16 b). The work on Aristophanes (schol. Vesp.947), sometimes entitled Κωμῳδούμενοι (schol. Vesp.1239), probably discussed the individuals attacked in Old Attic Comedy. He is not the author of the extant De adfinium vocabulorum differentia (ed. K. Nickau, 1966).
Erik Robertson Dodds and John Dillon
Amoebean verse, a stylistic form found mainly in bucolic poetry (adapted in Catull. 62, Hor. Carm. 3. 9), consists of matching groups of verse assigned alternately to two characters usually in singing contests, which probably have roots in folk-poetry. Each theme introduced by one character has to be closely ‘capped’ by the other; sometimes an umpire decides the result.
R. W. V. Catling
Ampelius, Lucius, dedicated his 50-chapter Liber memorialis to a Macrinus still sometimes identified with the emperor M. *Opellius Macrinus, but language and intellectual level are those of late-antique compendia: moreover, there are far more errors and absurdities than can be blamed on later copyists. Subjects covered are cosmography, geography, marvels (some not found elsewhere), religion (from a Euhemeristic standpoint; see
Jakob Aall Ottesen Larsen and P. J. Rhodes
Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond
Herbert Jennings Rose
Amphilochus, in mythology, brother of *Alcmaeon (1), and, in some accounts (as Apollod. 3. 82 and 86), his comrade in the expedition of the *Epigoni and helper in slaying Eriphyle. After Homer he takes part in the Trojan War (e.g. Quint. Smyrn. 14. 366), and is celebrated as a diviner. He and *Calchas left Troy together by land and came to *Claros (Strabo 14. 1. 27). A number of local tales (or constructions of Greek historians) connect Amphilochus with the origins of places and peoples in Asia Minor, as Poseideion on the borders of Syria and Cilicia (Hdt. 3. 91. 1), the Pamphylian nation (Hdt. 7. 91. 3), but above all the famous mantic shrine in Mallus (Strabo 14. 5. 16). Apollo killed him in Soli (Hes. fr. 279 M–W).
Amphion and Zethus, sons of *Zeus and *Antiope: they founded and walled seven-gated *Thebes (1) (Od. 11. 260–5).
The story is fleshed out by Sophocles (Niobe) and Euripides (Antiope). The brothers were born in a cave on Cithaeron and were said to have ruled Eutresis before coming to Thebes. Their mother, having been maltreated by *Dirce, was avenged by her sons. Amphion married *Niobe, with unfortunate issue; Zethus, an altogether more shadowy figure (Amphion's name can at least be connected with his walking around the site of Thebes playing his lyre and charming the stones into a wall), married the equally vague Thebe, or possibly *Aëdon (Heinzel 20, see bibliog. below). A prehistoric burial-mound immediately north of the Cadmea is probably the site variously identified as the tomb of one or the other or both.
James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond
W. M. Murray
Amphissa, ‘the largest and most famous city of the [western, Ozolian] Locrians’ (Paus. 10. 38. 2; see
Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine
Amphitryon, son of Alcaeus king of Tiryns. He and his fiancée *Alcmene (daughter of Electryon king of *Mycenae) were forced to flee to *Thebes (1) after he had accidentally killed Electryon. After helping the Thebans to rid themselves of the Teumessian fox, he set out to fight the Teleboans (who had killed eight of Alcmene's nine brothers), and defeated them. In his absence, *Zeus lay with Alcmene, who bore him *Heracles (Il. 14. 323–4); in the same accouchement she bore *Iphicles to Amphitryon.
Amphitryon led the Thebans successfully in war against the Euboeans (Paus. 9. 17. 3, 8. 15. 6; Plut., Amatoriae narrationes 3 (774c)), but was less fortunate against the *Minyans, fighting whom he died (Heracles subsequently freed the Thebans from their oppression). Amphitryon was buried at Thebes, jointly with *Iolaus (Schachter 1. 30–1; 2. 18, 64–5, see bibliog. below). He seems to have been a local Theban warrior hero (the tomb is attested from the 5th cent.), whose role was partially usurped by Heracles.
Alan Johnston and Virginia Randolph Grace
The amphora is one of the most versatile and long-lived pot shapes. A two-handled jar (amphi-phoreus, ‘carried on both sides’), it can vary enormously in size, detail of shape, and manner of decoration. Broad-mouthed jars, plain or decorated, were generally known as kadoi or stamnoi in antiquity. Plain or part-decorated jars, more often termed amphoreus, were used widely for storage and transport; we see them often in vase scenes, and literary and epigraphic texts fill out the picture. The average capacity of Classical and Hellenistic jars is 20–25 lt. (4½–5½ gal.); earlier types are regularly larger (up to 95 lt. (21 gal.)), betraying their derivation from the static storage pithos. Early transport amphorae (late 8th cent., esp. Attic and Corinthian) probably contained oil; later, wine becomes the major commodity; jars supplement, then supplant skins. Other commodities which we know to have been transported in amphorae include pitch and dried fish. Stoppers were of various material, though few survive; clay is best attested, both as basic material and sealer, though resin was also used for the latter purpose.