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Troy  

Carl W. Blegen and D. F. Easton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Troy lies in north-west *Asia Minor 5 km. from the *Hellespont. The site consists of a mound with c. 25 m. of deposits and a 1 km. sq. skirt to the south. It was noted by F. Kauffer (1793), ... More

Tylos  

Daniel Potts

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tylos, the Greek name (cf. Tyros (Strabo 16. 3. 4) Lat. Tyrus (Plin. HN 12. 21. 38)) given to the largest of the Bahrain islands in the *Persian Gulf, probably from Akkadian Tilmun via Aramaic ... More

Tyre  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, Jean-François Salles, and J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Tyre, a major city in southern Phoenicia (see phoenicians) with a large territory, built on an island but extending ashore, and equipped with two harbours. It is famed as the main founder of ... More

Ugarit  

Jean-François Salles

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Ugarit, an important kingdom of N. Syria in the late bronze age, known from the excavations at Ras Shamra (16 km. (10 mi.) north of Lattakie) and the hundreds of texts in Ugaritic ... More

Uranius, Greek writer about Arabia  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
His date is not quite certain, but 4th century ce (rather than three centuries earlier) seems likeliest. He is a source for much of the Arabian information in Stephanus of Byzantium, in ... More

Urartu  

J. David Hawkins

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Urartu, iron age kingdom ( = Hebrew Ararat) in the territory of later *Armenia. The unified kingdom is known from its archaeology and monumental *cuneiform inscriptions under a dynasty c.830–640 bce. ... More

Uruk  

Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Uruk (mod. Warka; Gk. Ὀρχόη), c. 170 km. (106 mi.) south of *Babylon. It was a substantial city from c.4000 bce to the Sasanian period (see sasanids) and the source of hundreds of *cuneiform texts ... More

Vologeses I  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
King of *Parthia, 51 ce/2–79/80. His family belonged to *Media Atropatene. Much of his reign was spent in wars with Rome and on his eastern frontier. In 54 Vologeses set his brother *Tiridates(3) on ... More

Xerxes I  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Xerxes I (OP Khšāyaršā), son of *Darius(1) and Atossa, king of *Persia486–465 bce, chosen by his father as successor (XPf ll. 31 ff.; Hdt. 7. 2–3). At the beginning of his reign he crushed a revolt ... More

Zeugma  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Zeugma (mod. Bâlkîs, opposite Bîrecik), in *Syria on the right bank of the *Euphrates at its chief crossing, about 112 km. (70 miles) below *Samosata. Twin colonies Seleuceia (right bank) ... More

Zeuxis (1), of Heraclea (1) in Lucania, painter, 397 BCE  

Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Zeuxis (1), painter, of *Heraclea(1) in Lucania, pupil of Neseus of Thasos or Damophilus of Himera. *Pliny(1) dates him 397 bce, rejecting 424. *Quintilian dates both him and *Parrhasius to the ... More

Zeuxis (4), Seleucid viceroy  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Zeuxis (4), important *Seleucid viceroy of the time of *Antiochus (3) III: Polybius 5. 45. 4 and 16. 1. 8 with Walbank, HCP and J. Ma, Antiochus III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor (1999) for ... More

Zoroaster  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Zoroaster, Ζωροάστρης (Ζαθραύστης, Ζαράτας), is the Greek form Old Iranian Zarathuštra. He is considered by Zoroastrian tradition as prophet of a new religion; the revolutionary nature of his ... More

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