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Damia and Auxesia  

Nicholas J. Richardson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Goddesses of fertility (cf. demeter and persephone/kore), worshipped at *Epidaurus, *Aegina, and *Troezen (Hdt. 5. 82–8 and IG 4.22 787; Paus. 2. 32. 2). Herodotus says that the cult at Epidaurus was ... More

demography  

Saskia Hin

People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography ... More

ephēboi  

Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ephēboi originally meant boys who had reached the age of puberty, and was one of several terms for age classes; but in 4th-cent. bce Athens it came to have a special paramilitary sense, boys who in ... More

epithalamium  

Eveline Krummen and Donald Russell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A song (or speech) given ‘at the bridal chamber (θάλαμος)’ ([Dion. Hal.] Rhet. 4. 1); a regular feature of marriages (see marriage ceremonies). Strictly speaking, it is distinct from the general ... More

eunuchs, religious  

Richard Gordon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the Classical period, religious eunuchs are a feature of several Anatolian cults of female deities, extending across to Scythia (Hdt. 4. 67: not shamans) and to the southern foothills of the ... More

eunuchs, secular  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
To the classical world eunuchs were despised figures who haunted the courts of oriental monarchs. The Persian king employed them prominently as guardians of his harem and loyal protectors of his ... More

gender  

Mark Golden

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Gender, the social construction of sexual difference, was an important Greek and Roman means of apprehending and explaining their world. It has also been central to modern understandings of Greece ... More

gynaecology  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gynaecology existed in the ancient world as a medical specialism, but its separate identity was not always permitted by wider medical theories. The significant question was this: do women have ... More

Hermaphroditus  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Half-male, half-female divinity, his cult first attested in the 4th cent. bce at Athens, where he provided *Posidippus(2) with the title of a comic play (lost) in the early 3rd. ... More

hetairai  

Madeleine M. Henry

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hetairai (“companions,” sing. hetaira) is an Attic euphemism for those women, slave, freed, or foreign, who were paid for sexual favours (see prostitution, secular). The term first appears with ... More

hetaireiai  

Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Associations of hetairoi (‘comrades’). In some, perhaps most, *Cretan cities the citizens were grouped in hetaireiai as part of the military system; each had its table in the city's andreion (‘men's ... More

heterosexuality  

Holt Parker

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Heterosexuality and *homosexuality are not strictly applicable to the Graeco-Roman world (this remains controversial). Discussions of sex could focus on either pleasure or procreation. Pleasures were ... More

homosexuality  

D. M. Halperin

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
No Greek or Latin word corresponds to the modern term homosexuality, and ancient Mediterranean societies did not in practice treat homosexuality as a meaningful category of personal or public life. ... More

homosexuality, female  

Sandra Boehringer

Online publication date:
May 2017
Sexual and amorous relationships between females constitute, as a heuristic category, an illuminating field of research for the construction of sexual categories in antiquity, as well as ... More

household, Greek  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The household (oikos) was the fundamental social, political and economic unit of ancient Greece (Arist.Pol. 1. 2), though its precise links into larger political and economic structures changed ... More

household, Roman  

Keith Bradley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Household’ is the usual English translation of Latin familia, a term to which the jurist Ulpian (Dig. 50. 16. 195. 1–5), understanding its application to both property and persons, assigned several ... More

housework  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Housework, a specifically female task, was evidently not of interest to male authors, and there are no surviving household accounts or instructions. ‘Women's work’ meant weaving and the other tasks ... More

Hypatia  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Woman learned in mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy (d. 415 ce). Daughter of the mathematician *Theon(4) of *Alexandria (1), she revised the third book of his Commentary on the ... More

Hypsicratia  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hypsicratia, mistress of *Mithradates VI Eupator, who admiringly called her by the male form of the name, Hypsicrates (Plut. Pomp. 32. 8). Her commemorative funerary statue has been found ... More

hysteria  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Hysteria, contrary to popular belief, was not so named by the Greeks. In Hippocratic *gynaecology (see hippocrates(2)) the womb (Gk. hystera) was indeed believed to ‘wander’ around the body, as a ... More

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