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  • Greek Material Culture: Classical and Hellenistic x
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Apollonius (7), son of Nestor, Athenian sculptor, 1st cent. BCE  

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apollonius (7), sculptor, son of Nestor, of Athens, signed the Belvedere torso in the Vatican (Winter, KB 394. 2). The supposed signature on the bronze boxer in the Terme is apparently an illusion ... More

Arcesilaus (2), Greek sculptor, 1st cent. BCE  

Thomas Bertram Lonsdale Webster and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Successful Greek sculptor working in Rome, friend of L. *Licinius Lucullus (2), highly regarded by *Varro. His major public commission was the statue of *Venus Genetrix for the temple dedicated by ... More

archaeology, classical  

A. M. Snodgrass

Classical archaeology properly the study of the whole material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, is often understood in a somewhat narrower sense. *Epigraphy, the study of inscriptions ... More

archaeology, underwater  

A. J. Parker

The potential richness of the sea for salvage or accidental finding of sunken valuables was recognized from earliest times, but the possibility of defining meaningful groups of wrecked material or of ... More

Archermus  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
6th-cent. Chiot sculptor (see chios). According to Pliny, HN 36. 11–14, son of Micciades, grandson of Melas, and father of Bupalus and Athenis (fl. 540–537 bce), all sculptors; worked on *Delos and ... More

archers, Greek and Hellenistic  

John F. Lazenby

Archaeological evidence shows that both the ‘self’ (i.e. made of one piece) and the ‘composite’ bow were known to bronze age Greece, and the considerable quantities of arrow-heads—flint, obsidian, ... More

architects  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The names of architects are preserved in literary sources as well as inscriptions. Theodorus, architect of the temple of Asclepius at *Epidaurus, is paid at only double the level of the ordinary ... More

architecture, Greek  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The forms of Greek architecture evolved essentially in the 7th and 6th cent. bce. After the collapse of *Mycenaean civilization, construction methods relapsed into the simplest forms of mud-brick and ... More

archives, Greek  

Rosalind Thomas

(τὰ δεμόσια γράμματα and variations; ἀρχεῖον is mainly Hellenistic). In Archaic Greece, documentation was minimal, laws being the most important public documents; lists of officials and agonistic ... More

Argonauts in art  

Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Argonauts generally appear in individual episodes. Boreads pursue Harpies (see harpyiae) on an Attic bowl (c.620 bce), later Archaic vases and an ivory from Delphi, and a Lucanian vase. The Argo ... More

armies, Greek and Hellenistic  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apart from what little archaeology can tell us, our earliest evidence comes from *Homer, but it is uncertain how far the poems can be taken as depicting real warfare. To some extent, what ... More

arms and armour, Greek  

Herbert William Parke and Michael Vickers

Most Homeric references to arms and armour are best interpreted in connection with Minoan and Mycenaean armaments, known from such representations as those on the shaft-grave daggers (see mycenae). ... More

art, ancient attitudes to  

J. J. Pollitt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Greeks regularly equated art with craft, τέχνη, which *Aristotle defined as the ‘trained ability (ἕξις) of making something under the guidance of rational thought’ (Eth. Nic. ... More

art, funerary, Greek  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
This article covers both architecture and art made specifically to mark and monumentalize the grave; for grave goods (which may be of any sort, and in Greece were rarely, it seems, custom-made for ... More

artisans and craftsmen  

Antony Spawforth

In Greece the prejudices of the (largely landowning) citizen-élites against the activities of ‘mechanics’ (banausoi), often slaves, *freedmen, or *metics, subjected artisans to formal handicaps in ... More

askoliasmos  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Askoliasmos (ἀσκωλιασμός), thought to be the name of a country sport in Attica (but see Parker). The players tried to keep their balance while jumping on an inflated and greasy wine-skin (ἀσκός). It ... More

astragali  

Frederick Adam Wright and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Astragali, knucklebones (ἀστράγαλοι), a popular pastime with Greeks and Romans of all ages. They also served as dice: the four long faces of the knucklebones were of different shapes, one ... More

Athens, topography  

John McKesson Camp II

The central fortress and principal sanctuary of *Athena, patron goddess of the city. In the later 13th cent. bce the steep hill was enclosed by a massive wall. Within, there are Mycenaean terraces, ... More

athletics, Greek  

Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
At the core of Greek athletics was an individual's hard physical struggle in order to gain victory over an opponent; hence, it included not only (as ‘athletics’ implies nowadays) track and ... More

Atlas in art  

Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Atlas is depicted in art from the mid-6th cent. bce, usually with Heracles in the Garden of the Hesperides, notably on the early Classical metope from *Olympia. In Hellenistic and Roman art he ... More

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