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Attila  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Attila, king of the *Huns (435/440–453 ce), at first ruled jointly with his brother Bleda whom he murdered in 445. Member of a dynasty which had united previously separate Hunnic groups ... More

Aurelius Achilleus  

Harold Mattingly and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aurelius Achilleus, according to the literary sources usurper in Egypt, ce 296–7, although papyri style him as *corrector under another usurper, L. Domitius Domitianus, conquered by ... More

Aureolus  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aureolus benefited from *Gallienus' patronage of talented soldiers, becoming commander of the cavalry corps in Milan (Mediolanum). He helped Gallienus overcome various rebels, though failed against ... More

Avaro-Slav invasions  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Slavs and Avars were the Roman empire's main enemies on the Danube frontier in the late 6th and early 7th cents. ce. The Slavs arrived first, agriculturalists with rudimentary social organization who ... More

Avitus, Alcimus Ecdicius  

Ian Wood

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bishop of Vienne, from c.490 ce. A member of the powerful family of the Aviti, he succeeded his father, Hesychius, as bishop. His brother, Apollinaris, was bishop of Valence. He was ... More

Avitus, Eparchius, Roman emperor  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman emperor (455–6 ce). He enlisted Visigothic support against *Attila (451) then, following the Vandal sack of Rome (455), was proclaimed emperor in Gaul by the *Visigoths and the Gallic ... More

Bede (Beda Venerabilis), c. 673–735 CE  

Scott DeGregorio

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bede (Beda Venerabilis) was Anglo-Saxon England’s most prolific Latin writer, and indeed one of the most distinguished authors of the early Middle Ages. At the end of his most celebrated work, ... More

Belisarius, c. 500–565 CE  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Belisarius (c. 500–65 ce), *Justinian's famous general, is known primarily through the writings of his assessor *Procopius. Native of Germania in Thrace, he served in Justinian's bodyguard during ... More

Benedictus Nursinus, c. 480–c. 550 CE  

Scott G. Bruce

Online publication date:
May 2016
Benedict of Nursia was an Italian abbot active in the hinterland of Rome at Subiaco and Monte Cassino in the early 6th century. He is best known as the author of a normative guide for monastic life, ... More

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus, c. 480–c. 524 CE  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Ostrogothic king *Theoderic (1) appointed this leading nobleman consul (510), and *magister officiorum (?522). He resisted official oppression, was implicated in a senatorial conspiracy, ... More

Bonifacius, Roman general, d. 432 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bonifacius (or Bonifatius) Romangeneral (d. 432 ce), after long service in North Africa (as tribunus in 417 and comes Africae in 423–5) was appointed comes domesticorum in 425 (see comites), but ... More

Byzantium  

Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Byzantium, a famous city on the European side of the south end of the *Bosporus (1), between the Golden Horn and the *Propontis. The Greek city occupied only the eastern tip of the promontory, in the ... More

Carausius, Marcus Aurelius Maus(aeus?)  

Anthony R. Birley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A Menapian of humble origin, who had served as a helmsman, was given a command in ce 285 or 286 to suppress barbarian (Saxon) raiders in the English Channel. After allegedly being accused ... More

Carinus, Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor  

Harold Mattingly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Elder son of M. Aurelius *Carus, left by him as Caesar in the west, when he marched against Persia (282 ce). Made Augustus before his father's death, Carinus succeeded him as colleague of his brother ... More

Carus, Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Praetorian prefect from Narbo who overthrew *Probus after rebelling in Raetia in 282 ce. Leaving his elder son, *Carinus, as Caesar in the west, Carus marched against Persia with ... More

Cassiodorus, politician, writer, and monk, c. 490–c. 585 CE  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
His Bruttian family had a tradition of provincial leadership and official service. He assisted his father, praetorian prefect of Italy, 503–7, under the Ostrogothic king *Theoderic (1). ... More

Chalcidius  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Chalcidius (Calcidius is more correct), 4th-cent. ce Christian translator and commentator on *Plato (1)'s Timaeus (to 53c only), using earlier Platonic and Peripatetic exegetes, especially ... More

Christodorus  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
(5th–6th cents. ce), poet from *Coptus in Egypt. All that survives complete is an *ekphrasis on the statues decorating the baths of Zeuxippus in *Constantinople, which in diction and ... More

Chronicon Paschale  

L. M. Whitby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Chronicon Paschale (‘Easter Chronicle’), a universal history from Creation to c. 630 ce. A particular concern is the establishment of chronological connections between Church feasts and ... More

churches, early Christian  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The first Christians met in the private houses of the faithful. Gradually, as local Christian communities became more established both in numbers and in wealth, they might acquire their own ... More

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