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krypteia  

Stephen Hodkinson and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Part of the Classical *Spartan upbringing (see agōgē) during which a (small?) number of young men selected (?annually) from the hēbōntes (young men) traversed the countryside, concealing themselves ... More

marriage ceremonies, Greek  

Christiane Sourvinou-Inwood

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Ceremonies were not identical all over Greece. For example, at Sparta they included a mock abduction (Plut.Lyc. 15. 3). But they were shaped by largely similar perceptions about the ceremony and the ... More

marriage ceremonies, Roman  

Gordon Willis Williams

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The favourite season was June. Usually on the previous day the bride put away her toga praetexta: she had come of age. Her dress and appearance were ritually prescribed: her hair was arranged in six ... More

marriage law, Greek  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marriage in Greece was a process of transfer, by which the kyrios (‘lord’ or ‘controller’) of a woman (normally her father; if he had died, her nearest adult male relative) gave her away to another ... More

marriage law, Roman  

Adolf Berger, Barry Nicholas, and Susan M. Treggiari

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Traditional expressions enshrine the view that a man took a wife for the procreation of children. According to the celebrated definition of *Herennius Modestinus adopted in the Digest, Roman marriage ... More

masculinity  

Mark Golden

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Achilles's father hoped he would become "a speaker of words and a doer of deeds" (Hom. Il. 9.443–444), and this amalgam—realized better by Odysseus—remained the ideal of masculinity throughout ... More

masturbation  

Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More

matriarchy  

Simon Geoffrey Pembroke

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The term “matriarchy” has, since J. J. Bachofen (Das Mutterrecht, 1861), been used to denote a quite hypothetical and now long discredited phase in the history of human societies when property was ... More

matrilocality  

Marilyn B. Skinner

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Matrilocality denotes a pattern of *marriage in which the groom resides with the bride's parents, as opposed to the more common patrilocal marriage, where the bride goes to live with the groom's kin. ... More

menopause  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Menopause, in contrast to menarche, was not regarded by medical writers as being a critical time in a woman's life. This may have been because the onset of fertility was culturally far more ... More

menstruation  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Was, in Hippocratic medicine (see Hippocrates(2)), regarded as essential to female health. The age of menarche was believed to be the fourteenth year, as the network of internal channels in the ... More

midwives  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Midwives and normal labour are rarely mentioned in the Hippocratic treatises (see Hippocrates(2)), perhaps because Hippocratic doctors concerned themselves with abnormal labour only. Occasional ... More

Moero, of Byzantium  

Richard Hunter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Female poet of late 4th–early 3rd cent. bce. Only scanty remains survive: ten verses from the hexameter Mnemosyne, two epigrams, a summary of a story of cruelty and mad passion from her Ἀραί ... More

motherhood, Greek  

Marilyn B. Skinner

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Women were deemed to have a natural right to *marriage and *children. Physicians maintained that intercourse and *childbirth were necessary to female health and prescribed pregnancy to cure ... More

motherhood, Roman  

Suzanne Dixon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Roman word for mother (mater) is reflected in such words as materfamilias and matrona, a respectable wife (Cic.Top. 14; Gell.NA 18. 6. 8–9). The legendary ‘first’ Roman divorce was of a virtuous ... More

Munichia (1), fortified hill north-east of Piraeus  

Robert Garland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Munichia (1) (or Munychia), mod. Kastella, is a steep hill to the north-east of *Piraeus which rises to a height of 86 m. (282 ft.). Directly below is Munichia Port and to the south-east Zea Port. In ... More

Nossis, fl. c. 300 BCE  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Nossis (fl. c. 300 bce), Greek poetess from Epizephyrian Locri (see locri epizephyrii), author of a dozen epigrams from *Meleager(2)'s Garland in the Greek *anthology, mostly inscriptions ... More

Pamphila, of Epidaurus  

M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pamphila of *Epidaurus, a scholar and anecdotal historian under *Nero. Her chief work, Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα, ‘Historical Notes’, of which *Diogenes (6) Laertius and Aulus *Gellius preserve ten ... More

Phaleron  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Phaleron, the harbour (epineion) of Athens as late as 490 bce (Hdt. 6. 116); offering little shelter, it was thereafter soon displaced by *Piraeus. The site is uncertain—probably at the low hill of ... More

phallus  

Richard Seaford

Phallus, an image of the penis, often as erect, to be found in various contexts, in particular (a) in certain rituals associated with fertility, notably Dionysiac *processions (see dionysus): see ... More

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