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  • Greek Material Culture: Classical and Hellenistic x
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axones  

Victor Ehrenberg and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
At Athens the laws of *Draco and of *Solon were inscribed on numbered axones; the term kyrbeis (of unknown origin), used of Solon's laws, is thought by some to refer to a different set of objects, ... More

ball games  

Frederick Adam Wright and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Playing with a ball (σφαῖρα) was at least as old as *Homer (Od. 6. 100, 8. 370). It is shown in Athenian art, notably two late Archaic reliefs, one (Athens 3476) apparently showing a throw-in from ... More

Bassae  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Bassae, in SW Arcadia, near Phigaleia, the site of one of the best-preserved Greek temples. This was dedicated to *Apollo the Helper (Epikourios). *Pausanias (3) says it was the work of *Ictinus, ... More

Biton, 3rd or 2nd cent. BCE  

Simon Hornblower

Biton (Βίτων) (3rd or 2nd cent. bce), the author of a small extant work on siege-engines, Κατασκευαὶ πολεμικῶν ὀργάνων καὶ καταπαλτικῶν (‘The Construction of War-machines and Catapults’; ... More

Boethus (1–2), metalworkers of Chalcedon, 2nd cent. BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Members of a family of artisans alternating the names Boethus and Athenaeon. Made portraits at *Lindus and *Delos between 184 and 126, a bronze *herm found in a ship wrecked off Mahdia in Tunisia ... More

books, Greek and Roman  

H. Maehler

Books existed in *Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and *Mesopotamia by c.3000 bce. While ... More

boxing  

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Greek and Roman boxing there was no classification of competitors by weight and so the advantage was generally with the heavier man. The Greeks bound leather thongs (ἱμάντες) ... More

Brauron  

Robin Osborne

Brauron, site of a sanctuary of *Artemis on the east coast of *Attica at the mouth of the river Erasinos. It is included in *Philochorus' list of twelve townships united by *Theseus (FGrH 328 F 94). ... More

building materials, Greek  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In its developed stages Greek *architecture was based on the use of finely dressed stone masonry, predominantly limestone. Where available either locally or transported, white *marble was used for ... More

Buthrotum  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Buthrotum (now Butrinto, uninhabited), founded traditionally by the Trojan *Helenus on a low hill at the seaward end of a narrow channel leading from a lake, possessed fine harbours and fisheries and ... More

Calamis, Greek sculptor  

Gisela M. A. Richter and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Active during the second quarter of the 5th cent. bce, to be distinguished from a second Calamis, sculptor and silversmith, working after c.400 bce, perhaps his grandson. He worked in marble, bronze, ... More

Calauria  

D. Graham J. Shipley

Calauria (now Póros), a Saronic island (23 sq. km.: 9 sq. mi.) adjacent to the Argolid, and its polis. The town lay near the island's summit (283 m.: 928 ft.); its remains, chiefly Hellenistic, ... More

Callicrates (1), Athenian architect, 5th cent. BCE  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Athenian *architect of the 5th cent. bce, responsible for work at the Nike sanctuary and the central long wall to the Piraeus (see athens, topography). He was associated with *Ictinus (see ... More

Callimachus (2), Greek sculptor, fl. c. 430–400 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
He made a golden lamp for the *Erechtheum, a set of bronze Laconian dancers, and a *Hera for *Plataea, and allegedly invented the Corinthian capital (Vitr. 4. 1. 9–10). He may also have invented the ... More

Callipolis  

W. M. Murray

Callipolis (also Callion), main city of the Aetolian tribe Callieis (a branch of the Ophiones), located in eastern *Aetolia on the upper Mournos river. Mentioned by *Thucydides (2) (3. 96. ... More

Camarina  

Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

A Syracusan (see syracuse) colony founded c.599 bce at the mouth of the river Hipparis in southern Sicily, near modern Scoglitti. Its mid-6th cent. fortifications enclose a vast area of 145 ha. (358 ... More

caryatides  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A Greek term for column-shafts carved in the form of draped women; male equivalents were called Atlantides (see atlas). Apparently named after Caryae in *Laconia, where virgins danced to *Artemis ... More

Cassope  

W. M. Murray

Cassope, main city of the Cassopaeans, a Thesprotian people (see thesproti) who broke away around 400 bce to become an independent tribal state. An Epidaurian inscription (see epidaurus) ... More

cemeteries  

Ian Morris

The organization of a formal cemetery, as a space reserved exclusively for the disposal of the *dead, was an important dimension of the social definition of the ancient city. Burial within the ... More

Cephisodotus (1), Athenian sculptor, fl. c. 372–369 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cephisodotus (1), Athenian sculptor, probably father of *Praxiteles and a brother-in-law of *Phocion. *Pliny (2)'s floruit of 372–369 bce (HN 34. 50) may relate to his most famous work, the bronze ... More

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