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astrology  

Roger Beck

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The art of converting astronomical data (i.e. the positions of the celestial bodies) into predictions of outcomes in human affairs. Astrology developed in the Hellenistic age, essentially ... More

astronomical instruments  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Although the introduction of an astronomical instrument (the gnomon, an upright stick for measuring shadow-lengths) is credited to *Anaximander in the 6th cent. bce, reliable information on the form ... More

astronomy  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The use of the heliacal rising and setting of prominent stars or star-groups to mark points in the year is found in the earliest literature of the Greeks (*Homer and *Hesiod, e.g. Op. 619 ff.), and ... More

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus  

Eric William Marsden

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus, author of an extant work on siege-engines (Περὶ μηχανημάτων; see artillery; siegecraft), perhaps to be dated in the 1st cent. bce or ce.

Athenaeus (3), of Attaleia, founder of the Pneumatists  

Ludwig Edelstein and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Athenaeus (3) of Attaleia in Pamphylia was the founder of a school of physicians, the *Pneumatists. Imbued with Stoic ideas but well trained in philosophy in general, Athenaeus assumed as basic ... More

Autolycus (2), of Pitane, Greek astronomer, fl. late 4th cent. BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Astronomer (fl. late 4th cent. bce), author of two works on elementary spherical astronomy, among the earliest Greek mathematical treatises that have come down to us entire: (1) On the ... More

Baccheius Geron, 3rd–4th cent. CE  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Baccheius Geron wrote an informative Introduction to the Art of Music in question-and-answer form, giving pithy harmonic and rhythmic analyses, mainly Aristoxenian (see aristoxenus) but ... More

Bacchius, of Tanagra, physician, 275–200? BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Member of the *Alexandrian ‘school’ of *Herophilus. Bacchius' influential Hippocratic lexicon (Lexeis1–3; see hippocrates(2)), of which Epicles of Crete produced an abridged version and against which ... More

baking, Roman  

Jared T. Benton

The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of ... More

Balbus  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Balbus wrote a surveying treatise on measurements and geometrical shapes. He undertook military surveying during the Dacian campaigns of an emperor, either *Domitian or *Trajan. See ... More

Bolus  

David John Furley and J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
RE, from Mendes in Egypt, contemporary of *Callimachus (3) (3rd cent. bce.), a writer on *magic and *pharmacology. A work of his entitled On Sympathies and Antipathies was ... More

botany  

John Scarborough

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
From earliest times, Greeks and Romans had expert familiarity with plants and their growth cycles; agriculture dominates, alongside acute command of medicinal herbs, including production of oils and ... More

bronze  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

The ancients used the words χαλκός, *aes, indiscriminately for copper and for the harder and more fusible bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. Implements of bronze are found in Egypt and *Mesopotamia ... More

Bryson  

Wilbur R. Knorr

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bryson (early 4th cent. bce), of Heraclea (3) Pontica, a sophist associated with the following of *Euclides (1) of Megara, he is criticized by Aristotle for an allegedly fallacious quadrature of the ... More

Callimachus (4), of Bithynia (?), Alexandrian physician, later 3rd cent. BCE?  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Alexandrian physician (later 3rd cent. BCE?), member of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. He ascribed great value to semiotics, i.e. to the careful study of symptomatic signs (τὰ σημεῖα τὰ ... More

Callippus, astronomer, fl. 330 BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Callippus (RE 22), astronomer (fl. 330 BCE), went with Polemarchus (pupil of *Eudoxus (1)) from *Cyzicus to Athens, where he associated with Aristotle. He corrected Eudoxus’ theory of ... More

canals  

Ernst Badian and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Canals (fossae, διώρυγες). Drainage and *irrigation canals were widely used in antiquity. The oldest, in Iraq, date to the sixth millennium bce, while in *Egypt they were in use from the fourth ... More

Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris  

Wilbur R. Knorr and Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris (perhaps c.400 ce), a Latin didactic poem in 208 hexameter verses, once ascribed to *Priscian, but now attributed to one Rem(m)ius Favinus (or Flav[in]us), ... More

Cassius Dionysius  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cassius Dionysius of *Utica, wrote (1) (88 bce) a Greek translation (with additions) of the work of the Carthaginian Mago on agriculture, which became the standard work on the subject, used by all ... More

Cassius (1), Roman physician  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

A Roman physician of the time of Augustus and Tiberius (31 bce–37 ce). His specific for the relief of colic was famous in antiquity.

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