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Arius Didymus  

Brad Inwood

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Arius Didymus, of Alexandria (1), philosopher and adviser to *Augustus; *procurator of Sicily. He wrote a now lost consolation for the death of Nero *Claudius Drusus, addressed to *Livia Drusilla. ... More

Arrian, c. 86–160 CE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Born in *Nicomedia in *Bithynia, he held local office and pursued studies with *Epictetus, whose lectures he later published (allegedly verbatim) as the Discourses and summarized in the Encheiridion ... More

Aspasius, c. 100–50 CE  

Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Aspasius (c.100–50 ce), Peripatetic. His commentaries on *Aristotle's Cat., Int., Metaph., Ph., and Cael., and his Treatise on the Natural Emotions are lost. His commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics ... More

Athēnaiōn politeia  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Aristotle is credited with works on the constitutions of 158 states: a papyrus containing all but the opening few pages of the Athenian constitution was acquired by the British Museum, and was ... More

Athenodorus  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Athenodorus, of Tarsus, son of Sandon, Stoic, a friend of *Cicero and *Strabo, and, like *Arius Didymus, a court philosopher to Augustus; he addressed a work to *Octavia (2). (He is to be ... More

atomism  

Catherine Osborne

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Atomism, a term used of theories that posit the existence of small indivisible particles as the ultimate components of matter. The Greek term atomon, used by some ancient philosophers to ... More

Atticus, c. 150–200 CE  

John Dillon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Atticus (c. 150–200 ce), Platonist (see plato (1)), opposed the infiltration of *Peripatetic elements into Platonism, but himself introduced into it certain doctrines proper to *Stoicism. ... More

Augustine, St, Aurelius Augustinus, 354–430 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
St Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus (354–430 ce), was born at Thagaste (mod. Souk Ahras, Algeria), son of Patricius, a modest town councillor of pagan beliefs, and a dominant Catholic ... More

Aurelius, Marcus, Meditations  

R. B. Rutherford

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Aurelius, Marcus, Marcus is most famous for a work his subjects never saw, the intimate notebook in which he recorded (in Greek) his own reflections on human life and the ways of the gods, perhaps ... More

Bion (1), of Borysthenes (Olbia), philosopher, c. 335–c. 245 BCE  

J. L. Moles

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Bion (1), of Borysthenes (Olbia) (c.335–c.245 bce), philosopher. His own account of his life (Diogenes Laertius 4. 46–7) is fictionalized. His disreputable parents (ex-prostitute and freedman who ... More

Blossius, Gaius  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Descendant of a prominent anti-Roman family of Hannibalic *Capua and a student of Stoic philosophy (see stoicism), was a friend of Ti. *Sempronius Gracchus (3), after whose death he joined ... More

Boethius, Musical writings  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Boethius' Institutio musica, mainly paraphrased from Greek sources, deploys Pythagorean harmonics (see pythagoras), within the quadrivium, to promote understanding of music's extraordinary powers. ... More

Boethus (3), of Sidon, Stoic, pupil of Diogenes (3) of Babylon, 2nd cent. BCE  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Stoic, pupil of *Diogenes (3) of Babylon.Diverging from orthodox Stoic physics, he rejected the ekpurōsis and derived *soul from air and fire. He devoted much attention to details of Stoic cosmology, ... More

Boethus (4), of Sidon, Aristotelian philosopher  

D. O'Meara

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Aristotelian philosopher of the time of Augustus, *Andronicus of Rhodes' pupil and successor, it seems, as head of the *Peripatetic school at Athens. He pursued Andronicus' work of explaining ... More

Bryson  

Wilbur R. Knorr

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bryson (early 4th cent. bce), of Heraclea (3) Pontica, a sophist associated with the following of *Euclides (1) of Megara, he is criticized by Aristotle for an allegedly fallacious quadrature of the ... More

Callicles  

C. C. W. Taylor

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
A character in *Plato (1)'s Gorgias, whose historicity is disputed. He attacks conventional morality as an inversion of true or natural morality, since the restrictions of conventional ... More

Calliphon  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Philosopher of uncertain date (probably not before *Ariston (1) of Chios and *Hieronymus (2) of Rhodes, who flourished c.250 bce). Cicero says he held that the supreme good consists in the union of ... More

Carneades  

Gisela Striker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Carneades from Cyrene (214/3–129/8 bce), the most important representative of the sceptical *Academy, often called the founder of the New Academy as distinct from the Middle Academy of *Arcesilaus ... More

Carneiscus  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy

Epicurean of the 3rd or 2nd cent. bce, author of Philistas, a discussion of friendship in which *Praxiphanes was criticized.

Catius, Titus  

M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Titus Catius, an Insubrian from Cisalpine Gaul (see Gaul (cisalpine)), is mentioned by Cicero (Fam. 15. 16) as a recently deceased writer on Epicureanism (see epicurus). He is also mentioned by ... More

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