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codex  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Codex, though it came to have a special meaning in legal contexts, denotes leaves of wood, papyrus, or (especially) parchment bound together in the form of a modern volume as opposed to a roll. (See ... More

coercitio  

Piero Treves and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Coercitio, the right, held by every magistrate with *imperium, of compelling reluctant citizens to obey his orders and decrees, by inflicting punishment. Against this compulsion, which magistrates ... More

collatio lustralis  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Collatio lustralis (chrysargyron), a tax in gold and silver levied every five years (later four) on traders in the widest sense. It was instituted by *Constantine, and abolished in the east by ... More

collegium  

Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of ... More

colonate  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Almost any statement that one might wish to make about the colonate as an institution of the Late Roman Empire is contestable. It would probably be widely agreed that evidence begins to appear in the ... More

comitia  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In Rome the *Comitium was the place of assembly. Comitia is a plural word meaning an assembly of the Roman people summoned in groups by a magistrate possessing the formal right to convoke them (ius ... More

Comitium  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The chief place of political assembly in republican Rome (Varro, Ling. 5. 155; Livy 5. 55) occupying an area north of the *forum Romanum at the foot of the Capitoline. It is associated with nine ... More

commendatio  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Under the Roman republic distinguished politicians influenced the elections of magistrates by open canvassing (suffragatio) on behalf of friends. This practice was continued by emperors (Suet. Aug. ... More

commentarii  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Commentarii ‘memoranda’, were often private or businesslike, e.g. accounts, notebooks for speeches, legal notes, or teaching materials. Their public use (excluding the false ‘commentarii of the ... More

conciliabulum  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Conciliabulum, term of Roman administrative law used to denote large villages in Italy in the republic. The rural population had been organized into tribus rusticae (see tribus), which had become ... More

concilium  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Concilium or commune, koinon in the east, the provincial council, an important element in the Roman system of provincial administration (see provincia); although never, it seems, standardised. The ... More

conductor  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
The Roman law of letting contracts (see locatio conductio) was central to the working of much public and private business. The conductor was the lessee, that is the person to whom the contract was ... More

consilium principis  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
A Roman magistrate was always at liberty to summon advisers in deliberation or on the bench. The fluctuating body of advisers summoned to the Roman emperors retained this semi-unofficial character, ... More

consistorium  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Consistorium, the name given to the imperial consilium from the time of *Diocletian, since the members no longer sat but stood in the emperor's presence. It functioned both as ... More

constitution, Antonine  

Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Antonine constitution (constitutio Antoniniana) is the name given to the edict of *Caracalla (Antoninus), probably of ce 212, which made all free men and women in the empire Roman citizens (Ulpian, ... More

constitutions  

Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Constitutions (constitutiones), the generic name for legislative enactments by Roman emperors, took different forms.(a) Like all higher magistrates, emperors had the power to issue *edicts; imperial ... More

consul  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The title of the chief annual civil and military magistrates of Rome during the republic. Two consuls were elected annually for most, if not all, of the republic by the centuriate assembly (see ... More

contio  

Piero Treves and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Contio (conventio, a coming together) was a public meeting at Rome from which no legal enactment actually emerged, even though it might form part of a longer formal procedure, such as a trial before ... More

contract, Roman  

R. Zimmermann

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Roman Law
Contract was one of the four branches of the law of obligations set out in Justinian Institutiones 3. 13. However, it constituted a law of specific contracts rather than a law of contract ... More

contubernium  

M. I. Finley and Keith Bradley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Contubernium meant a ‘dwelling together’, as of soldiers or animals, but referred especially to a quasi-marital union between slave and slave or slave and free. Since a slave ... More

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