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Bellona  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John North

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bellona (older form Duellona), Roman goddess of war. She had no flamen (see flamines) and no festival in the calendar, unlike the major ancient deities; she acquired her temple as late as ... More

bidental  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
When lightning struck, the Etruscan and Roman ritual prescribed that the bolt be buried (often inscribed fulgur conditum), and the place enclosed (Luc. 1. 606–8; 8. 864). The ancients ... More

Bona Dea, 'the Good Goddess'  

John North

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bona Dea (the Good Goddess—this is her title, not name, which is uncertain), an Italian goddess, worshipped especially in Rome and Latium. In Rome, she had an annual nocturnal ceremony ... More

Bonus Eventus  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bonus Eventus, personified god of the good outcome of agricultural labour (Varro Rust. 1. 1. 6), and, by extension, other human activity. A porticus near the baths of *Agrippa at Rome ... More

books, sacred and cultic  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Texts produced by religions of classical antiquity fall into three broad categories: (1) Texts emanating from or inspired by a divinity. Some of them reached the status of sacred books, and formed a ... More

Cacus  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
For the Augustans (Verg. Aen. 8. 190–279; Livy 1. 7. 3–15, with Ogilvie's notes; Prop. 4. 9; Ov. Fast. 1. 543–86, with Bömer's notes, 5. 643–52) a savage fire-breathing monster whose thieving ... More

Caelestis  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Caelestis, ‘heavenly’, the epithet of *Juno at Carthage, successor to, and inheritor of many aspects of, the Carthaginian Tinnit (Tanit). The cult, with an oracle, was important in Roman *Carthage, ... More

calendar, Roman  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The original Roman calendar supposedly consisted of ten months only, the later March–December, and would therefore have had an uncounted gap in the winter, between years (cf. Ov. Fast. 1. 27–44, with ... More

Camenae  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Goddesses of a spring (from which the *Vestals drew their daily water), meadow, and grove below the *Caelian hill just outside the porta Capena at Rome. They included *Egeria, and were linked ... More

Camilla  

Arthur Stanley Pease

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A legendary Volscian maiden, whose father Metabus, in flight fastened her to a javelin, dedicated her to *Diana, and threw her across the Amisenus river. After life as a huntress she joined the ... More

camillus  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Camillus, fem. camilla, the ancient name for acolytes in Roman cult; the normal term was pueri et puellae ingenui patrimi matrimique. They might be the children of the officiant, but must, ... More

Caprotina  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Caprotina, title of *Juno, from Nonae Caprotinae (‘Nones of the Wild *Fig’) on 7 July, to whom freedwomen and female slaves sacrificed, then fighting a mock battle with fig-tree sticks (Varro, Ling. ... More

Capys  

Stephen J. Harrison

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Capys, (1) father of *Anchises (Il. 20. 239); (2) companion of Aeneas and founder of *Capua (Aen. 10. 145); (3) king of *Alba Longa (Livy 1. 3. 8).

Caristia  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Caristia (cara cognatio), Roman family festival on 22 February. Ovid (Fast. 2. 617–38) makes it a reunion of surviving family members after the *Parentalia's rites to the departed (February 13–21), ... More

Carmen arvale  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Hymn sung during the sacrifice to *Dea Dia by the *fratres arvales (arval brethren). Although only recorded in an inscriptional copy of ce 218 (A. Gordon, Album of Dated Latin Inscriptions ... More

Carmentis  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Carmentis or Carmenta (the latter Greek and seldom Latin, as Hyg. Fab. 277. 2), meaning ‘full of *carmen (divine incantation)’; see A. Ernout and A. Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue ... More

carmina triumphalia  

John Wight Duff and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Carmina triumphalia, songs sung, in accordance with ancient custom, by soldiers at a *triumph, either in praise of their victorious general or in a satiric ribaldry supposed ... More

Castor and Pollux  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Castor and Pollux, the temple of the *Dioscuri (aedes Castorum or even Castoris) at Rome, in the Forum, beside the Fountain of Juturna, was attributed (see especially Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6. 13. 1–2) ... More

Ceres  

Herbert Jennings Rose and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
An ancient Italo-Roman goddess of growth (her name derives from † ker- ‘growth’), commonly identified in antiquity with *Demeter. Her name (*OscanKerri-, see the ‘Curse of Vibia’, Conway, Ital. Dial. ... More

Chaldaean Oracles  

David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
These are conventionally attributed either to a certain Julian the Chaldaean, who is alleged to have flourished in the reign of *Trajan, or to his son, Julian the Theurgist, who lived in the reign of ... More

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