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Xenophon (1), Greek historian  

C. J. Tuplin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenophon, son of Gryllus, from the Athenian *deme of Erchia, was born into a wealthy but politically inactive family around 430 bce. He presumably served in the cavalry (see hippeis (2) and (4)) and ... More

Xenophon (2), Greek novelist  

Ewen Bowie

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Greek novelist (see novel, greek), author of The Ephesian story of Anthia and Habrocomes (Τὰ κατὰ Ἀνθίαν καὶ Ἁβροκόμην Ἐφεσιακά). Mention (2. 13. 3) of an eirenarch, an office not attested before ... More

Xerxes I  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Near East
Xerxes I (OP Khšāyaršā), son of *Darius(1) and Atossa, king of *Persia486–465 bce, chosen by his father as successor (XPf ll. 31 ff.; Hdt. 7. 2–3). At the beginning of his reign he crushed a revolt ... More

Xuthus  

Emily Kearns

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xuthus, a mythological figure connected with the perceived racial divisions among the Greeks. According to *Hesiod (fr. 9 M–W) he was son of *Hellen and brother of Dorus and Aeolus (2), the eponyms ... More

Zacynthus  

W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zacynthus, the southernmost of the western Greek islands, located in the *Ionian Sea south of *Cephallenia, 16 km. (10 mi.) west of *Elis. Prehistoric remains (paleolithic to Mycenaean; see mycenaean ... More

Zagreus  

Radcliffe G. Edmonds III

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The ancient lexica (Etymologicum Magnum, Photius, Hesychius, Suda) identify Zagreus as a poetic name for Dionysus in a chthonic aspect, χθόνιος Διόνυσος, and he is invoked along with Gē (Earth), in ... More

Zaleucus  

Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Zaleucus, lawgiver of Italian *Locri Epizephyrii, and probably the earliest lawgiver in Greece, perhaps c.650 bce. The traditions about him are poor, later accounts (e.g. Diod. Sic. 12. ... More

Zalmoxis  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
According to *Herodotus(1) (4. 94–6), a god of the *Getae in Thrace (‘also called Gebeleizis’) who promised immortality to his devotees; the tribe communicated with him by despatching a ... More

Zama  

R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zama was the name of more than one locality in present-day Tunisia. It is best known as the alleged site of Hannibal's defeat by P. *Cornelius Scipio Africanus (see punic wars; and next entry) in 202 ... More

Zama, battle of  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zama is the name given to the final battle of the Second *Punic War, though it was not actually fought near any of the places so called (see preceding entry). *Hannibal had perhaps 36,000 ... More

Zealots  

Martin Goodman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zealots, a Jewish political group in the 1st cent. ce. According to *Josephus the Zealots were one of the three factions who controlled *Jerusalem in the last years of the Jewish revolt against Rome ... More

Zela  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zela (mod. Zile), an ancient temple-state of *Pontus with a large and fertile territory and a considerable population of sacred slaves (*hierodouloi) attached to the land and to the ... More

Zeno (1), of Elea, philosoper and friend of Parmenides  

Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (1), of Elea is portrayed by *Plato(1) (Prm. 127b) as the pupil and friend of *Parmenides, and junior to him by 25 years. Their fictional meeting with a ‘very young’ *Socrates (ibid.) ... More

Zeno (2), of Citium, founder of Stoicism  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (2), of Citium (*Cyprus), (335–263 bce), founder of *Stoicism. He came to Athens in 313 and is said to have studied with or been influenced by various philosophers, notably *Crates (2) the ... More

Zeno (3), of Tarsus, Stoic  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (3) of *Tarsus, Stoic (See stoicism), *Chrysippus' successor as head of the Stoa in 204 bce. He had many followers, but wrote little; he had doubts about ekpyrōsis (conversion into ... More

Zeno (4), of Rhodes, politician, early 2nd cent. BCE  

Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zeno (4) was a politician who wrote a history of Rhodes from the beginnings to his own times. *Polybius (1) used it (along with the work of *Antisthenes(2)), although he criticized its patriotic ... More

Zeno (5), of Sidon, Epicurean, b. c. 150 BCE  

William David Ross and Dirk Obbink

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Epicurean (See epicurus), pupil of the Epicurean Apollodorus and probably head of the school between him and *Phaedrus(3). *Cicero heard him lecture in Athens in 79–78, and found him querulous and ... More

Zeno (6), of Sidon, Stoic  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy

Zeno (6) of *Sidon, Stoic (See stoicism), pupil of *Diodorus(2) Cronus and of *Zeno(2).

Zeno (7), Herophilean physician, 2nd cent. BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zeno (7) (2nd cent. bce), a physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus, participated in the Herophilean traditions of innovative pulse theory, *pharmacology, and Hippocratic lexicography (see ... More

Zenobia  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zenobia (Septimia), or in *AramaicBath Zabbai, one of the great women of classical antiquity (PLRE 1. 990 f.). The second wife of *Septimius Odaenathus of *Palmyra, on his death in ce 267, in ... More

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