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Aristonymus comic writer and contemporary of *Aristophanes (1), whom he ridicules (fr. 3).
Kenneth Dover and Christopher Pelling
John Francis Lockwood and Nigel Wilson
George Law Cawkwell
Martha C. Nussbaum and Catherine Osborne
Aristotle (384–322 BCE), philosopher, pupil of *Plato (1), was born in *Stagira in *Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus, a member of the medical guild of the Asclepiadae (see
John Norman Davidson Kelly and David M. Gwynn
Remembered as the great heresiarch of the 4th-cent. Church. Probably Libyan by birth, he became a leading presbyter at *Alexandria (1), but in 318 or 320/1 came into conflict with his bishop Alexander for teaching the subordination of the Son to the Father within the Trinity. He was expelled from Egypt and, although supported by several prominent bishops including Eusebius of Nicomedia and Eusebius of Caesarea, Arius was condemned at the council of *Nicaea (1) (325). Although rehabilitated in c.335, Arius died shortly afterwards in a Constantinople latrine. The heresy of *‘Arianism’ is named after him, but in fact Arius and his teachings exerted little influence on 4th-cent. theological debates after Nicaea. Only a few letters and some fragments of his Thalia (verse and prose popularizations of his doctrines) survive, confirming that Arius did not deny the Son’s divinity, but reduced Him to a created being inferior to God the Father.
Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer
John F. Lazenby
Apart from what little archaeology can tell us, our earliest evidence comes from *Homer, but it is uncertain how far the poems can be taken as depicting real warfare. To some extent, what happens on Homeric battlefields is dictated by the nature of the poetry. However, with the possible exception of those from *Locris (Il. 13. 714 ff.), all troops are implied to be of the same type, and there is no cavalry, even the chariots not being organized as a separate force and only rarely being used for a massed charge (e.g. 15. 352 ff.), despite *Nestor's advice (4. 303 ff.). Nestor also recommends subdivision into *phylai (‘tribes’) and *phratries (2. 362 f.), and other passages suggest organization into lines and files (e.g. 3. 77, 4. 90), but the constant use of the throwing-spear implies a loose formation except in particular circumstances (e.g. 16. 211 ff.).