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Aristonous  

Bernhard Zimmermann

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Corinthian citharode. On a stele found at Delphi (BCH 1894, 563 ff.) the Delphians (see delphi) give to him and his descendants privileges because of his *hymns. Two hymns are preserved in ... More

Aristonymus, comic writer and contemporary of Aristophanes (1)  

Geoffrey Arnott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Aristonymus comic writer and contemporary of *Aristophanes (1), whom he ridicules (fr. 3).

Aristophanes (1), Athenian poet of Old Comedy, 2nd half of 5th cent. BCE  

Kenneth Dover and Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aristophanes (1), the greatest poet of the Old Attic Comedy (see comedy (greek) old), was a native of *Athens and a member of the Athenian deme (see demes, demoi). He was the son of Philippus and he ... More

Aristophanes (2), of Byzantium, librarian of Alexandria, c. 257–180 BCE  

John Francis Lockwood and Nigel Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aristophanes of Byzantium (probably c. 257–180 bce) succeeded *Eratosthenes as head of the Alexandrian Library (c.194 bce). He was a scholar of wide learning, famous for his linguistic, literary, ... More

Aristophon, Athenian politician, c. 435–c. 335 BCE  

George Law Cawkwell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aristophon (c. 435–c. 335 BCE) Athenian politician, whose activities, extending from 403/2 to the late 340s, brought him into opposition first to the party of *Callistratus (2) over relations with ... More

Aristotle, philosopher, 384–322 BCE  

Martha C. Nussbaum and Catherine Osborne

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Aristotle (384–322 BCE), philosopher, pupil of *Plato (1), was born in *Stagira in *Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus, a member of the medical guild of the Asclepiadae (see asclepius), was ... More

Aristoxenus  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aristoxenus, of *Tarentum (b. c.370 bce), best known for musical writings but also a philosopher, biographer, and historian. He was trained in *music, possibly to professional standards, by his ... More

Arius, c. 260–336 CE  

John Norman Davidson Kelly and David M. Gwynn

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Remembered as the great heresiarch of the 4th-cent. Church. Probably Libyan by birth, he became a leading presbyter at *Alexandria (1), but in 318 or 320/1 came into conflict with his ... More

Arius Didymus  

Brad Inwood

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Arius Didymus, of Alexandria (1), philosopher and adviser to *Augustus; *procurator of Sicily. He wrote a now lost consolation for the death of Nero *Claudius Drusus, addressed to *Livia Drusilla. ... More

Armenia  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
A mountainous region of eastern Anatolia, north of Syria and Mesopotamia, bounded on the east by *Media Atropatene (mod. Azerbaijan) and on the west by *Cappadocia and *Commagene. The region, known ... More

armies, Greek and Hellenistic  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apart from what little archaeology can tell us, our earliest evidence comes from *Homer, but it is uncertain how far the poems can be taken as depicting real warfare. To some extent, what ... More

armies, Roman, late empire  

R. S. O. Tomlin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The army of the late empire is brilliantly described by *Ammianus Marcellinus, and its order of battle (c. 395 ce) survives in the *Notitia Dignitatum, but its evolution is obscure. As pressure upon ... More

armies, Roman, monarchy to 3rd cent. CE  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Traditionally, King Servius *Tullius (c.580–530 bce), made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into wealth groups, so ... More

Armilustrium  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman festival on 19 October to *Mars which purified (see lustration) the army (Varro, Ling. 5. 153, 6. 22); this took place at the *Aventine's Armilustrium (Livy 27. 37. 4, Plut. Rom. 23. 3), which ... More

Arminius, b. c. 19 BCE  

Arnaldo Momigliano, Theodore John Cadoux, and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arminius, born c. 19 bce, war-chief of the *Cherusci, son of Sigimer. He had Roman citizenship, and served long in the auxiliary forces, attaining equestrian rank. In ce 9 he lured P. *Quinctilius ... More

arms and armour, Greek  

Herbert William Parke and Michael Vickers

Most Homeric references to arms and armour are best interpreted in connection with Minoan and Mycenaean armaments, known from such representations as those on the shaft-grave daggers (see mycenae). ... More

arms and armour, Roman  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Artistic representations, military treatises, other literary and subliterary references, and archaeological artefacts are the main sources of information. Pre-imperial artefacts are sparse and come ... More

Arnobius  

William Hugh Clifford Frend and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Christianity
Arnobius, a teacher of rhetoric at *Sicca Veneria in Proconsular Numidia, said by *Jerome to have taught *Lactantius and to have suddenly become a Christian (c.295); see christianity. A year or two ... More

Arpi  

Geraint Dyfed Barri Jones and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arpi, in Italy, Argos Hippion or Argyrippa, the largest of the *Daunian cities, in the Tavoliere of Apulia. It was in existence from at least as early as the 6th cent. bce, and made a treaty with ... More

Arpinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arpinum, in Italy, a Volscian hill-town (see volsci) in the *Liris valley, modern Arpino, with interesting polygonal walls. Rome captured Arpinum from its Samnite conquerors and gave it civitas sine ... More

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