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Typhōn  

Ken Dowden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Typhōn (Typhaōn Typhōeus), monster and adversary of *Zeus. *Hesiod's Typhoeus (Theog.823–35) has 100 snake-heads, eyes blazing fire, and voices that cover the gamut of gods and animals. The final ... More

Tyro  

Richard Hunter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tyro, in mythology, daughter of *Salmoneus and mother (by Cretheus) of *Jason(1)'s father Aeson and (by *Poseidon) of the twins *Pelias and *Neleus. Tyro loved the river *Enipeus, but Poseidon ... More

Tyrrhenus  

Herbert Jennings Rose

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Tyrrhenus (Τυρρηνός), eponym of the Tyrrhenians (i.e. *Etruscans, though see West on Hes. Theog. 1016), Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1. 27. 1, where he is son of King Atys and comes from Maeonia (Lydia); in ... More

Uranus  

Emily Kearns

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Uranus (Greek Ouranos), the divine personification of the sky in Greece. Scarcely known in cult, his best-known appearance is in *Hesiod'sTheogony (126 ff.). He is produced by *Gaia (Earth), then ... More

votive offerings  

Irad Malkin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Votive offerings are voluntary dedications to the gods, resulting not from prescribed ritual or sacred calendars but from ad hoc vows of individuals or communities in circumstances usually of ... More

wind  

Liba Taub

In classical times, wind was in some cases understood to be a god, or as being under the influence of a god; it was understood by some to be a phenomenon liable to prediction and/or explanation as a ... More

wind-gods  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wind-gods are attested as the object of anxious cultic attention as early as the Mycenaean period, when a priestess of the winds (anemōn iereia) is recorded on the *Cnossus tablets (see mycenaean ... More

women in cult  

Emily Kearns

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Women played a prominent part in the public religious life of the Greek cities, their roles being in many respects different from those of men. Most, though not all, cults of a female deity were ... More

worship, household  

J. D. Mikalson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The domestic cult of a Greek family concerned the protection and prosperity of the house and its occupants, with daily small offerings and prayers to *Zeus Ctesius (protector of the ... More

Xuthus  

Emily Kearns

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xuthus, a mythological figure connected with the perceived racial divisions among the Greeks. According to *Hesiod (fr. 9 M–W) he was son of *Hellen and brother of Dorus and Aeolus (2), the eponyms ... More

Zagreus  

Radcliffe G. Edmonds III

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The ancient lexica (Etymologicum Magnum, Photius, Hesychius, Suda) identify Zagreus as a poetic name for Dionysus in a chthonic aspect, χθόνιος Διόνυσος, and he is invoked along with Gē (Earth), in ... More

Zalmoxis  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
According to *Herodotus(1) (4. 94–6), a god of the *Getae in Thrace (‘also called Gebeleizis’) who promised immortality to his devotees; the tribe communicated with him by despatching a ... More

Zephyrus  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zephyrus (W), Boreas (N), and Notus (S) winds catalogued by *Hesiod at Theog.378–80. But epic may conceive of them, as convenient, either as minor gods who feast in their own palaces (Il. 23. 200 ... More

Zeus  

Fritz Graf

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Zeus, the main divinity of the Greek pantheon (see olympian gods; religion, greek) and the only major Greek god whose *Indo-European origin is undisputed. His name is connected with Latin ... More

Zeus in art  

Karim Arafat

Although 8th-cent. figurines may represent Zeus, he does not assume a type until early Archaic, when he strides with thunderbolt and, rarely, eagle. In the Classical period, Zeus is quieter, often ... More

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