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exile, Greek  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
Exile (φυγή, literally ‘flight’) is permanent (aeiphygia) or long-term removal from one's native place, usually as a punishment imposed by government or other superior power. In Greece it was from ... More

Four Hundred, the  

Antony Andrewes and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Four Hundred, the, a revolutionary *oligarchic council set up to rule Athens in 411 bce. The movement started in the fleet at *Samos in summer 412, when *Alcibiades offered to win Persian help for ... More

freedmen/freedwomen, Greek  

David M. Lewis and Sara Zanovello

Online publication date:
May 2017
In the Greek world, manumission, which spelt the end of an individual’s life in slavery, was achieved in a variety of ways, but it often entailed legal obligations to remain (paramenein) ... More

freedom in the ancient world  

K. Raaflaub

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
On the individual and social levels, the distinction between free and unfree is as old as slavery, and individual or collective freedom from dues, taxes, and other obligations as old as communities ... More

gerousia  

Stephen Hodkinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
The council of elders in Greek cities, notably at *Sparta. The Archaic and Classical Spartan gerousia comprised 28 men aged over 60, drawn de facto (if not de iure) from the leading ... More

Gortyn, Gortyn law code  

Victor Ehrenberg, Lucia F. Nixon, and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Gortyn was a city in central *Crete. From the 7th cent. bce are known a temple to *Athena on the acropolis, and one to *Apollo Pythios on the plain; an agora lies at the foot of the acropolis. By the ... More

government/administration, Greek  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
The Greek states involved their citizens, as far as possible, in carrying out decisions as well as in making decisions, and did little to develop a professional *bureaucracy. The need for regular ... More

grammateis  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Secretaries of various kinds; generally not responsible magistrates, though like them appointed for a year only, by election or by lot. In Athens the principal secretary, responsible for ... More

graphē  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Graphē (γραφή) in Athenian law was a type of prosecution, the commonest public action. The name seems to imply that when this procedure was instituted its distinctive feature ... More

graphē paranomōn  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Graphē paranomōn (γραφή παρανόνων) in Athens was a prosecution for the offence of proposing a law or decree which was contrary to an existing law in form or content. As soon as the accuser made a ... More

guardianship, Greek  

Adolf Berger and Barry Nicholas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Greek Law
The development of the law of guardianship in Greece and Rome was influenced by the change in the conception of guardianship itself, which began as a right of preserving and protecting the ward's ... More

hektēmoroi  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Hektēmoroi (ἑκτήμοροι), ‘sixth-parters’, a class of peasants in Attica before *Solon. Exactly what they were and what Solon did for them was not clearly remembered and is much disputed. They had to ... More

hellanodikai  

Frederick Adam Wright and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Hellanodikai (‘Greek judges’), the title of the chief judges at the *Olympian Games, the *Nemean Games, and the Asclepian Games (see asclepius) at *Epidaurus. The Olympic hellanodikai were appointed ... More

helots  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Some Greek states had servile populations which were not privately owned chattel-slaves or douloi (see slavery), but, because their status seemed superior in important respects, came to be ... More

hieromnēmones  

Francis Redding Walton and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Religious officials found in many Greek states. *Aristotle (Pol. 1321b) classifies them with the civil registrars of public and private documents, and temples frequently served as record offices. ... More

homonoia  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Homonoia (ὁμόνοια) lit. ‘oneness of mind’, a political ideal first met in Greek writers of the later 5th cent. bce, essentially signifying either(1) concord or unanimity within the *polis and ... More

hubris  

N. R. E. Fisher

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Hubris, intentionally dishonouring behaviour, was a powerful term of moral condemnation in ancient Greece; and in Athens, and perhaps elsewhere, it was also treated as a serious crime. The common use ... More

Hyperides, Athenian orator and politician, 389–322 BCE  

Judson Herrman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hyperides (Ὑπερείδης), son of Glaucippus of the deme Collytus, was one of the ten canonical Attic orators and was esteemed by ancient critics as a versatile speechwriter; as a politician, ... More

incest  

Mark Golden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Incest, sexual intercourse or marriage with close kin, was restricted throughout classical antiquity. However, terminology and the particular relations prohibited varied with place and time. Though ... More

infanticide  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Greek Law
Infanticide, killing of infants (ἔκθεσις, expositio, ‘putting outside’, probably a euphemism), a method of family limitation. The term as generally used by historians also covers exposure of infants, ... More

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