Antony Andrewes and P. J. Rhodes
David M. Lewis and Sara Zanovello
In the Greek world, manumission, which spelt the end of an individual’s life in slavery, was achieved in a variety of ways, but it often entailed legal obligations to remain (paramenein) as a free servant for a fixed period of time. In some cases, freedmen and freedwomen subject to paramone obligations were able to “buy out” of this condition (apolysis). Manumission documents, which have been found in many parts of the Greek world, particularly in northern Greece (especially Delphi), reveal the legal position of slaves and how it differed from the legal position of freedpersons. Unlike in Rome, freedpersons in the Greek world did not automatically become citizens of their ex-owner’s polis (although some freed slaves did manage to achieve naturalization in return for benefactions bestowed on the community). In Athens, they held a legal position almost identical to that of resident foreigners (metoikoi), with some minor differences. Manumission was usually a private act, but in some cases the polis manumitted privately owned slaves, and in Sparta, helots could only be manumitted by the state. The frequency of manumission in the Greek world remains a debated topic, but recent work has raised the possibility that its use as an incentive for slaves was probably targeted mainly at slaves working in skilled, “care-intensive” roles, and also for slaves (including hetairai) with whom individuals conceived sexual attachments.
The council of elders in Greek cities, notably at *Sparta. The Archaic and Classical Spartan gerousia comprised 28 men aged over 60, drawn de facto (if not de iure) from the leading families, together with the two kings. Membership was for life; vacancies were filled through competitive acclamation by the citizens. Its functions included control over resolutions introduced before the assembly (probouleusis), although its application to matters of foreign policy is debated; trial of important criminal cases (although there is dispute over royal trials); and supervision of laws and customs. Sparta's Hellenistic and Roman gerousia underwent various changes. Membership was reduced to 23, the minimum age to perhaps 40, and the office became annual. Its supervisory role was taken by the *nomophylakes, who with the *ephors assumed much of the probouleutic function. The council of Roman Sparta was a composite of all three sets of officials.
Victor Ehrenberg, Lucia F. Nixon, and Simon Price
P. J. Rhodes
Arnold Wycombe Gomme and P. J. Rhodes
Secretaries of various kinds; generally not responsible magistrates, though like them appointed for a year only, by election or by lot. In Athens the principal secretary, responsible for publishing documents which emanated from the council or assembly, was until the 360s a member of the council (*boulē), elected to serve for one prytany (see
D. M. MacDowell
Graphē (γραφή) in Athenian law was a type of prosecution, the commonest public action. The name seems to imply that when this procedure was instituted its distinctive feature was that the charge was made in writing, whereas in other actions the charge was made orally. Any Athenian with full citizen-rights who wished (ὁ βουλόμενος) could prosecute; and since prosecution by anyone who wished was introduced by *Solon, it is probable, though not attested, that it was Solon who introduced graphē. By the 4th cent.
D. M. MacDowell
Adolf Berger and Barry Nicholas
Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and Simon Hornblower
Frederick Adam Wright and P. J. Rhodes
Francis Redding Walton and Antony Spawforth
N. R. E. Fisher
Hyperides (Ὑπερείδης), son of Glaucippus of the deme Collytus, was one of the ten canonical Attic orators and was esteemed by ancient critics as a versatile speechwriter; as a politician, he was a prominent opponent of Macedon in the period before and after the battle of Chaeronea.