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Cassius (2), doctor-sophist  

William David Ross and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Doctor-sophist, the author of Ἰατρικαὶ ἀπορίαι καὶ προβλήματα φυσικά (‘medical puzzles and problems of physics’), not earlier than the 3rd cent. ce.

catoptrics  

Wilbur R. Knorr and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Catoptrics, a special field of *optics, is properly the geometric theory of the visual appearances of objects seen under reflection (anaklasis), but among the ancients also includes studies of ... More

Censorinus  

Alun Hudson-Williams and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Censorinus (3rd cent. ce), a Roman grammarian (Prisc. 1. 4. 17), wrote On Accents (De accentibus, lost), and ‘a fine volume, on Birthdays’ (De die natali volumen illustre) (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 14 pref. ... More

Cetius Faventinus, Marcus  

Leofranc Holford-Strevens

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Marcus Cetius Faventinus, (3rd–4th cent. ce), made a revised abridgement of *Vitruvius for builders of private houses; his work was used by *Palladius (1) and *Isidorus (2).

changing landscapes, natural causes of  

John Bintliff

The classical world witnessed many forms of landscape change in its physical geography, mostly due to longer-term geological and climatological processes, whilst only a minority were due ... More

childbirth  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Childbirth was generally the concern of women, either family and neighbours or experienced *midwives who were sometimes ranked as doctors, but male doctors expected to be called in for difficult ... More

Chrysermus  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Chrysermus (fl. mid-1st cent. bce?), Alexandrian physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. The extant evidence, transmitted principally by *Galen and *Pliny (1) the Elder, concerns his pulse theory ... More

Claudius Thrasyllus, Tiberius  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Tiberius Claudius Thrasyllus, of *Alexandria (1), astrologer (d. 36 ce), owed his great reputation to the emperor *Tiberius, who, meeting him in *Rhodes, brought him to Rome, trusted his ... More

Cleomedes  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Wrote (perhaps c.360 ce) a treatise on astronomy, Κυκλικὴ θεωρία [μετεώρων] ‘Elementary Theory [of the Heavens]’. Although disordered and often trivial, the work is valuable for what it preserves ... More

Cleonides  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Cleonides (perhaps 2nd cent. ce). His Introduction to Harmonics is an unusually reliable compendium of *Aristoxenus' basic doctrines.

climate  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The ancient climate was very similar to the modern climate. The Mediterranean climate is characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. There is a very high degree of interannual climatic ... More

clocks  

G. J. Toomer and Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The usual instrument for telling time in antiquity was the sundial. This employed the shadow of a pointer (γνώμων) cast on a plane, spherical, or conical surface marked with lines indicating the ... More

Conon (2), of Samos, Greek mathematician and astronomer, 1st half of 3rd cent. BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Conon of *Samos (first half of 3rd cent. bce), mathematician and astronomer. After observing star-risings and weather phenomena in Italy and Sicily, he became famous by his identification ... More

constellations and named stars  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
From the earliest times the Greeks, like many other peoples, named certain prominent stars and groups of stars. Homer speaks of the Pleiades, the Hyades, Orion, Boötes, the Bear (‘also called the ... More

Cornelius Celsus, Aulus  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Cornelius Celsus, Aulus, lived in the reign of *Tiberius (14 ce–37), and wrote an encyclopaedia on the Artes, including books on agriculture, military science, rhetoric (and perhaps on philosophy and ... More

Crateuas  

John Scarborough

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Medical botanist and personal physician of *Mithradates VI of Pontus (120–63 bce), after whom he named mithridatia, the mall, liliaceous Erythronium dens-canis L. (Plin.HN 25. 26. 62). Crateuas ... More

Ctesibius, inventor, fl. 270 BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Inventor (fl. 270 bce), was the son of a barber in *Alexandria (1), and employed by *Ptolemy (1) II. He was the first to make devices employing ‘*pneumatics’, i.e. the action of air under ... More

Cyranides  

John Scarborough

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cyranides, a Greek tract in five books, listing the magical and curative powers of stones, plants, and animals. Authorship, date, and title are uncertain, although the Cyranides bears ... More

Damon (2), Athenian sophist and musicologist  

Andrew Barker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Damon (2) Athenian sophist, musicologist and children’s music-teacher, a member of *Pericles’ (1) circle of intellectuals, mentioned admiringly but perhaps ironically in *Plato (1)’s ... More

deformity  

Robert Garland

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Malnutrition, *disease, and certain social practices contributed to the prevalence of congenital deformity in antiquity, though palaeopathology can tell us nothing about the level of incidence of any ... More

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