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Artaphernes  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaphernes or Artaphrenes, but only the former is correct: cf. El. Irdapirna and OP †Rta-farnah-. (1) Full brother of *Darius I and satrap of Sardis, who put down the *Ionian Revolt. He figures in ... More

Artavasdes (1) II  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artavasdes (1) II of *Armenia (55/4–34 bce) succeeded his father *Tigranes (1) II, and was Rome's ally when *Crassus invaded Mesopotamia; but *Orodes' simultaneous invasion of Armenia brought him ... More

Artavasdes (2)  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artavasdes (2), king of *Media Atropatene, whose land and capital, Phraaspa, were attacked by M. *Antonius (2) in 36 bce. Enmity with the Armenian *Artavasdes (1) and a quarrel with the Parthian ... More

Artaxata  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
A royal city in *Armenia, in the district of Ararat, c.32 km. (20 mi.) SW of Erivan. It was founded by Artaxias I, traditionally with the advice of *Hannibal (Strabo 11. 14. 6; Plut. ... More

Artaxerxes (1) I, 465–424 BCE  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (1) I (OP Rtaxšaçā), one of *Xerxes' and Amestris' sons, who came to power in the obscure situation following his father's murder (August 465). The Egyptian Revolt, helped by ... More

Artaxerxes (2) II, 405/404–359/358 BCE  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (2) II (405/4–359/8 bce), eldest son of *Darius II and Parysatis, Arsu/Arses succeeded his father smoothly in 405/4. His reign is usually seen as initiating a period of accelerated ... More

Artaxerxes (3) III, 359/8–338 BCE  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (3) III (359/8–338 bce), Ochos (Umakuš in Bab. texts), one of *Artaxerxes (2) II's sons, proclaimed king with the name Artaxerxes (359/8). Apart from the relatively unimportant *Satraps' ... More

Artaxerxes (4) IV, 338–336 BCE  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (4) IV (338–336 bce), throne-name of Arses, one of *Artaxerxes (3) III's sons. The *Aramaic version of the famous trilingual inscription from *Xanthus (RO 78) is dated to the ... More

Artaxerxes (6)  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Artaxerxes (Ardashir), the name of several *Sasanid kings, the greatest being Artaxerxes I (d. ce 241), son of Pabag, founder of the Sasanian empire. Taking advantage of the Parthian preoccupation ... More

Aryan  

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and W. F. M. Henkelman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Aryan (Skt.ārya-; Avestan airiia-), a social qualifier and mythical ethnonym sometimes used by ancient peoples of *India and Iran as self-designation with varying meaning and significance. ... More

Ashoka  

Romila Thapar

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Ashoka, the major king of the Mauryan dynasty ruling c.268–232 bce over almost all the Indian subcontinent (see mauryas). His edicts were inscribed on pillars and rock surfaces and were largely ... More

Asia Minor, classical  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The geographical term Asia Minor is used to denote the westernmost part of the Asian continent, equivalent to modern Turkey between the Aegean and the Euphrates. The western and southern coastal ... More

Asia Minor, pre-classical  

D. F. Easton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Palaeolithic and mesolithic occupation was in caves and rock-shelters and has left simple paintings. The neolithic (c.8000–6500 bce) brought settlement in plains and valleys, growth of villages, and ... More

Asia, south-east  

Ian C. Glover

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Known as Chrysē, ‘the Golden Land’ to Pomponius Mela (3. 70) and Pliny (HN 6. 54, 80). The Peripl. M. Rubr. (63. 20) refers to it as a place for regular trade on the edge of the inhabited ... More

Assyria  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
1. Land of the patron god As̆s̆ur, the kingdom in the Upper Tigris region in modern Iraq, centre of an important state in the middle bronze age and then of two ... More

Atargatis  

Francis Redding Walton and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Atargatis (Aramaic ῾Atar-῾Ata), the goddess of Hierapolis-Bambyce in Syria whose usual name among Greeks and Romans was the ‘Syrian goddess’ (Συρία θεά, dea Syria); a mother-goddess, giver of ... More

Attaleia  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Attaleia (mod. Antalya), a city of *Pamphylia founded by *Attalus II and perhaps intended as a focus of Attalid political influence in southern Asia Minor. Its coins show that it claimed ... More

Attalus I, 269–197 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Attalus I (269–197 bce), ruler of *Pergamum (241–197), the first Pergamene to use the royal title. Cousin and adopted son of *Eumenes (1) I, Attalus expanded and consolidated his kingdom through ... More

Attalus II, 220–138 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Attalus II (220–138 bce), king of *Pergamum (158–138), second son of *Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother *Eumenes (2) II as loyal general against ... More

Attalus III, c. 170–133 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Attalus III (c. 170–133 bce), son of *Eumenes (2) II, last king of Pergamum (138–133), who bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Called ‘Philometor’ (‘Mother-lover’) because of his close relationship to ... More

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