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Cebes  

Christopher Rowe

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Cebes of *Thebes (1), like his compatriot *Simmias (1), is a main character in *Plato (1)'s Phaedo; he probably also shared with him long-standing membership of the Socratic circle (see ... More

Celsus, Roman author of The True Doctrine, late 2nd cent. CE  

William David Ross and David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Author of a comprehensive philosophical polemic against *Christianity, The True Doctrine, written probably between 175 and 181 (Origen, C. Cels. 8. 69, 71). The work is primarily known through ... More

Chamaeleon  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Chamaeleon, of *Heraclea (3) Pontica (c.350–after 281 bce), Greek *Peripatetic writer; almost no biographical details exist. He wrote works on *satyric drama and comedy, and studies of a ... More

Charmadas  

Gisela Striker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Charmadas (168/7–some time after 107 bce), member of the *Academy, pupil of *Carneades. Mentioned by *Sextus Empiricus (Pyr. 1. 220) as founder of the ‘Fourth Academy’ together with ... More

Chrysippus, of Soli in Cilicia, c. 280–207 BCE  

Julia Annas and Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Chrysippus of Soli in *Cilicia (c. 280–207 bce), succeeded *Cleanthes as head of the Stoa in 232 (see stoicism). He came to Athens about 260 and studied both at the sceptical *Academy, where he ... More

Claudius Aristocles, Tiberius  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Tiberius Claudius Aristocles of *Pergamum (2nd cent. ce), was a Peripatetic philosopher turned sophist who also held the consulship. As sophist he studied under *Herodes Atticus, taught in ... More

Cleanthes, of Assos, 331–232 BCE  

Julia Annas and Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Student of *Zeno (2) and his successor as head of the Stoa (see stoicism). His religious spirit is distinctive; after the writings of *Chrysippus established a Stoic orthodoxy, this came ... More

Clitomachus, 187/186–110/109 BCE  

Gisela Striker

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Academic sceptic (see academy), came from *Carthage and was originally named Hasdrubal. He went to study in Athens, aged 24, and according to *Diogenes (6) Laertius (4. 67) became well versed in ... More

Colotes, of Lampsacus, c. 325–260 BCE  

William David Ross, Dirk Obbink, and Eleni Kechagia-Ovseiko

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Pupil and devoted follower of *Epicurus. He countered *Arcesilaus (1) (Plut. Adversus Coloten 1121e, 1124b; Diog. Laert. 9. 44) and the sceptical New Academy with Epicurean materialism and *atomism, ... More

colour, ancient perception of  

Ashley Clements

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
W. E. Gladstone's 19th-cent. philological studies of Greek colour terms led him to conclude that the Greeks suffered from defective vision (1858). More recently, in the wake of Berlin and ... More

Crantor, of Soli in Cilicia, c. 335–275 BCE  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Crantor of Soli in Cilicia (c. 335–275 bce), philosopher of the early *Academy, and the first Platonic commentator. He studied under Xenocrates (1), and cohabited with *Arcesilaus (1), ... More

Crates (2), of Thebes, Greek philosopher and poet, c. 368/365–288/285 BCE  

J. L. Moles

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Crates (2), of *Thebes (1) (c.368/365–288/285 bce), *Cynic philosopher and poet. Moving to Athens as a young man, he became a follower of *Diogenes (2) and gave his wealth to the poor. How far he ... More

Cratylus  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
A younger contemporary of *Socrates. He pressed the doctrine of *Heraclitus (1) to an extreme point, denying to things even the slightest fixity of nature. According to *Aristotle he was *Plato (1)'s ... More

Crito (1), wealthy friend of Socrates, 5th–4th cent. BCE  

Michael Gagarin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Crito (1), a wealthy and devoted friend of *Socrates, who in *Plato (1)'s Apology offers to stand surety for him, and in the Crito plans for Socrates’ escape from prison. Seventeen ... More

Crito (3), of Argos, Greek Neopythagorean philosopher  

David John Furley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Crito (3), of *Argos (1), a *Neopythagorean philosopher, of whose On Wisdom Stobaeus (2, 157–8) quotes fifteen lines of Doric prose, about the mind as created by God so as to enable man to ... More

Critolaus  

Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Critolaus, of *Phaselis, head of the *Peripatetic school. His dates are unknown, but he was probably an old man when he took part, with *Carneades the Academic (see academy) and *Diogenes (3) the ... More

Cynics, 'the doggish'  

J. L. Moles

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Cynics (‘the doggish’), term used of *Diogenes (2) ‘the dog’ (by-word for shamelessness) and his followers. The genesis, status, significance, and influence of Cynicism were already ... More

Cyrenaics  

C. C. W. Taylor

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
A school of philosophers reputedly founded by *Aristippus, influential in the later 4th and early 3rd cent. bce. Its best-known members were Theodorus, *Hegesias (1), and *Anniceris. Its ... More

Damon (1), of Syracuse, Pythagorean  

Brian M. Caven

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Damon went bail for Phintias (not Pythias), condemned by a *Dionysius ((1) or *(2)); saved by Phintias' last-minute return. One of a series of ‘friendship under *tyranny’ stories: cf. ... More

Demetrius (14), of Laconia, Epicurean philosopher, c. 100 BCE  

William David Ross and Dirk Obbink

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Epicurean pupil of Protarchus of Bargylia and younger contemporary of Philodemus' teacher *Zeno (5) of Sidon. He refuted Carneades' attack on the possibility of proof, and expounded ... More

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