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Claros  

David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Oracle and grove of *Apollo belonging to the city of Colophon. The oracle appears to have been founded by the 8th cent. bce, as stories about its foundation appear in the Epigoni (attributing the ... More

clubs, Roman  

George Hope Stevenson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Latin words corresponding most closely to the English ‘club’ are *collegium and sodalitas (see sodales). The former was the official title of the four great priestly colleges, *pontifices, ... More

collegium  

Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of ... More

colours, sacred  

Herbert Jennings Rose and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Three colours are especially important for sacral purposes in antiquity; they are white, black, and red, the last being understood in the widest possible sense, to include purple, crimson, even ... More

Concordia  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The cult of personified harmonious agreement (Gk. *homonoia) within the body politic at Rome (a useful ideological slogan, as for instance concordia of the *senate and *equites in the politics of ... More

consecratio  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman law (civil and pontifical) distinguished between things belonging to gods and things belonging to humans (res divini and humani iuris); the former were subdivided into res sacrae and res ... More

Consentes Di  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Twelve deities (six male, six female), perhaps those worshipped at the *lectisternium of 217 bce (Livy 22. 10. 9), whose gilded statues stood in the Forum in the late republic (Varro, Rust. 1. 1. 4), ... More

Consus  

C. Robert Phillips

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A Roman god of the granary (from condere ‘to store’) whose festivals (Consualia) on 21 August and 15 December coincided, respectively, with the gathering of the harvest and the onset of ... More

Cornelius Labeo  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Cornelius Labeo (? second half of 3rd cent. ce) wrote a (lost) history of Romano-Etruscan religion, the target of polemic from *Arnobius and St *Augustine.

Crete, Greek and Roman  

William Allison Laidlaw, Lucia F. Nixon, and Simon Price

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Evidence for the history of the island comes both from literary sources, inscriptions, and coins and from excavation and (increasingly) field survey. The transition from bronze to iron age is still ... More

curses  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A curse is a wish that evil may befall a person or persons. Within this broad definition several different types can be distinguished, according to setting, motive, and condition. The most direct ... More

Curtius  

Piero Treves

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The hero of an aetiological myth invented to explain the name of lacus Curtius, a pit or pond in the Roman *forum, which by the time of *Augustus had already dried up. Three Curtii are mentioned in ... More

Cybele  

Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cybele (Κυβέλη; Lydian form Κυβήβη, Hdt. 5. 102), the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, associated in myth, and later at least in cult, with her youthful lover *Attis. *Pessinus in Phrygia ... More

daimōn  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Etymologically the term daimōn means ‘divider’ or ‘allotter’; from *Homer onwards it is used mainly in the sense of operator of more or less unexpected, and intrusive, events in human life. In Homer ... More

Dea Dia  

Mary Beard

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A goddess worshipped by the *fratres arvales, who celebrated her main festival in May. Her function and character are, in many respects, obscure. The etymology of ‘Dia’ suggests an ... More

deae matres  

James Rives

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Deae matres, ‘mother goddesses’, whose cult is widely attested in monuments and inscriptions of the Celtic and Germanic regions of the Roman empire, from northern Italy to ... More

death, attitudes to, Roman  

Robert Garland and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the Roman tradition death is conceived of essentially as a blemish striking the family of the deceased, with the risk of affecting all with whom it had contact: neighbours, magistrates, priests, ... More

dedicatio  

J. Linderski

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Transfer of a thing from the human into the divine sphere was accomplished through the act of dedicatio and *consecratio, the former indicating surrender of an object into divine ownership, the ... More

deisidaimonia  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Although originally the term had a positive meaning (‘scrupulousness in religious matters’, *Xenophon (1) and *Aristotle), it is predominantly used in a derogatory way and denotes an excessive ... More

deus, divus  

John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
These two words, deriving from the same form (†deiwo-), designate two different types of Roman divinity. A deus (fem. dea, plural divi under the republic) was immortal and had never experienced ... More

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