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Vienna  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vienna (mod. Vienne), a town in Gallia Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)), *civitas-capital of the *Allobroges. Perhaps created a colonia Latina by *Caesar, it was made a full colony by *Gaius(1) ... More

Viminacium  

John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Viminacium (mod. Kostolac), on the Danube east of Belgrade, was a Celtic settlement (see celts) which became a legionary fortress and city in *Moesia Superior. Its permanent garrison (probably from ... More

Viminal  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

One of the *Seven hills of Rome. It lay between the *Esquiline and the *Quirinal.

Vindobona  

John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
On the Danube, lay in the territory of the *Boii, a Celtic people (see celts) included within *Pannonia (Superior). In the 1st cent. ce it was garrisoned by the Ala Flavia Domitiana Augusta ... More

Vindonissa  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vindonissa (mod. Windisch, Switzerland), a prehistoric site on the lower Aar, occupied c.17 ce by Legio XIII, which was replaced in 45–6 by Legio XXI Rapax (see legion), whose violent behaviour to ... More

Viroconium  

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Viroconium (also Uri(o)conium or Viriconium), a town in Roman *Britain (mod. Wroxeter, in Shropshire). The site, which controlled the route via the Severn valley into Wales, was the focus of ... More

Virunum  

John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Virunum, a city in southern *Noricum near the river Glan at modern Zollfeld. It lay in the territory of the Celtic Norici, whose centre was on the Magdalensberg 1,058 metres (half a mile) south-east ... More

Vix  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vix, a Hallstatt (late 6th-cent. bce) sepulchral mound by Mont Lassois (Côte-d'Or). Its rich grave goods, including a massive bronze Greek mixing-bowl, suggest the growing influence of the ... More

Volaterrae  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Volaterrae (Etr. VelaθRi; mod. Volterra), one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and capital of the mineral-rich zone of central Tuscany, was established in Villanovan times ... More

Volcei  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Volcei (mod. Buccino), in south Italy, Lucanian city (see lucania) near the Valle di Diano. It was inhabited from the bronze age, and prominent under Roman rule. It entered alliance with Rome ... More

Volsinii  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Veteres, one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans), may safely be equated with medieval and modern Orvieto and its temples (notably Belvedere, of *Vitruvius' Tuscan type), ... More

Volturnus  

Edward Togo Salmon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Volturnus, the principal river of *Campania, a considerable stream often mentioned in ancient accounts of Samnite and Hannibalic Wars (see samnium; punic wars). It rises in Samnium and flows ... More

Volubilis  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Volubilis (mod. Oubili), a town in the Djebel Zerhoun plain in Morocco, 20 km. (12 mi.) north of Meknes. Already in existence in the 4th or early 3rd cent. bce, it soon became thoroughly Punicized, ... More

Vulci  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vulci (Etr. Velχ-), 20 km. (12½ mi.) north-west of *Tarquinii in central Italy, situated on a plateau overlooking the river Fiora and with a commanding view of Monte Argentario and Cosa, was one of ... More

wind  

Liba Taub

In classical times, wind was in some cases understood to be a god, or as being under the influence of a god; it was understood by some to be a phenomenon liable to prediction and/or explanation as a ... More

Xanthus, a city of Lycia  

Stephen Mitchell and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xanthus was called the largest city in *Lycia by *Strabo (14. 3. 6, 666), a claim borne out by its extensive remains; prosperity was based on the fertile plain of the river Xanthus, with access to ... More

Zacynthus  

W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zacynthus, the southernmost of the western Greek islands, located in the *Ionian Sea south of *Cephallenia, 16 km. (10 mi.) west of *Elis. Prehistoric remains (paleolithic to Mycenaean; see mycenaean ... More

Zama  

R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zama was the name of more than one locality in present-day Tunisia. It is best known as the alleged site of Hannibal's defeat by P. *Cornelius Scipio Africanus (see punic wars; and next entry) in 202 ... More

Zela  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Zela (mod. Zile), an ancient temple-state of *Pontus with a large and fertile territory and a considerable population of sacred slaves (*hierodouloi) attached to the land and to the ... More

Zeugitana  

Brian Herbert Warmington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The name, of unknown origin, sometimes applied to the northern part of the province of Africa (see africa, roman), centred on *Carthage. It is used by *Pliny(1) (HN 5. 23), but then seems to have ... More

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