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artillery  

Jonathan Coulston

Evidence for Greek and Roman artillery comes from the surviving technical treatises, incidental historical and subliterary references, and, most importantly, finds of both machine-fittings and ... More

Asclepiades (4), of Myrleia in Bithynia, Greek author, 1st cent. BCE  

Peter Barr Reid Forbes and Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Asclepiades (4), of Myrleia in *Bithynia (1st cent. bce), worked in Spain, and wrote on the history of Bithynia, and of scholarship; on *Homer and *Theocritus; and, as Atticist analogist, Περὶ ... More

Aspasia  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aspasia, Milesian-born mistress of *Pericles (1) from c.445 bce when he divorced his wife. She is said to have taught rhetoric (Suda), and to have had discussions with *Socrates (Plut. Per. 24). She ... More

Astyochus  

Stephen Hodkinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Spartan admiral, 412/411 bce, blamed (perhaps unfairly, given difficult circumstances) by contemporaries and modern scholars for Sparta's early failures in the Ionian War (see ... More

Athamanes  

Peter Sidney Derow

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A tribal group inhabiting the area between the Arachthus and the western slopes of Pindus, notionally descended from *Athamas. After the end of the Epirote kingdom in the 230s bce, it seems, they ... More

Athēnaiōn politeia  

P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Aristotle is credited with works on the constitutions of 158 states: a papyrus containing all but the opening few pages of the Athenian constitution was acquired by the British Museum, and was ... More

Athens, History  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Tradition held that *Theseus was responsible for the *Synoecism , in the ... More

Athens, Prehistory  

O. T. P. K. Dickinson

The more substantial remains of later periods have largely effaced prehistoric settlement evidence, apart from subterranean features like tombs and wells. The distribution of these ... More

Attalus I, 269–197 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Attalus I (269–197 bce), ruler of *Pergamum (241–197), the first Pergamene to use the royal title. Cousin and adopted son of *Eumenes (1) I, Attalus expanded and consolidated his kingdom through ... More

Attalus II, 220–138 BCE  

R. M. Errington

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Attalus II (220–138 bce), king of *Pergamum (158–138), second son of *Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother *Eumenes (2) II as loyal general against ... More

Atthis  

Phillip Harding

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Atthis was the title given in post-*Alexandrian scholarship to the genre of Greek *historiography that narrated the local history of *Attica. The title, derived from the name of the daughter of the ... More

Bacchiadae  

John Salmon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bacchiadae, aristocrats of *Corinth, claimed Heraclid (see heraclidae) descent from King Bacchis. After suppressing the kingship c.750 bce they ruled, 200 in number, until *Cypselus overthrew them ... More

barbarian  

Thomas E. J. Wiedemann

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Social groups frequently assert their cohesiveness by emphasizing the differences between themselves and ‘outsiders’. Individuals belong to a range of groups, and which they choose to emphasize will ... More

Bardylis I  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Founded a powerful kingdom early in the 4th cent. bce which threatened to destroy the Molossian and Macedonian kingdoms. The former was saved by Sparta and the latter by *Philip (1) II of Macedon. ... More

Bastarnae  

Max Cary and John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A roving tribe which first appeared on the lower Danube c.200 bce. They were enlisted by *Philip (3) V and *Perseus (2) of Macedon against their enemies in the northern Balkans, and by Mithradates VI ... More

biography, Greek  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
1. Biography in antiquity was not a rigidly defined genre. Bios, ‘life’, or bioi, ‘lives’, could span a range of types of writing, from *Plutarch's cradle-to-grave accounts of statesmen to ... More

Boeotia and Boeotian Confederacy  

John Buckler and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Boeotia was a region in central Greece, bounded in the north by *Phocis and Opuntian *Locris. The east faces the Euboean Gulf, and Mts. Parnes and Cithaeron form the southern boundary with Attica. On ... More

Boeotius, treaty of  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Modern name for an important moment in Spartan–Persian diplomacy in the late 5th cent. bce (Xenophon Hellenica 1. 4), by which Sparta in 408 bce may have secured the *autonomy of the Asia Minor ... More

Brasidas, Spartan commander, d. 422 BCE  

Stephen Hodkinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
He gained prominence through defending *Methone (2) from the Athenians in 431, held the ephorate (see ephors) in 431/0 and naval advisory positions in 429 and 427. Following distinguished action as a ... More

Brennus (2), leader of the Galatian invasion  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Brennus (2), leader of the *Galatian invasion in 279 bce. Following on the heels of another body of Gauls under Bolgius, Brennus overran Macedonia and invaded Greece in autumn. Checked by a Greek ... More

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